I've heard or seen all of them in real life situations, some of them seem to be exclusively for hostels, others only for larger hotels, but some verification would be nice.
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酒店 usually means restaurant only, but it refers to the hotel with restaurant advertised or the larger hotel too.
宾馆/旅馆/旅店 is hotel, same exactly meaning, including the hotel with restaurant. But you never call a restaurant only as 宾馆. And you don't call a very good hotel as 旅馆/旅店.
旅社/招待所 is often used by mid aged people in China, when they say 旅社 they meant those hotels that are nation sponsored (国营的) in the planned economics time. Mostly it is equivalent to 宾馆/旅馆, but 旅社 refers to the smaller cheap hotel on the street nowadays, 招待所 is still for the nation or organisation sponsored hotels.
旅舍 means the accommodation for travellers, mostly in country side, specifically means the small and cheaper hotel. It refers the building rather than the function of the hotel.
YHA can be translated as 青年旅馆 or 青年旅舍, rarely with other names. Bagpacker's can be translated as 背包旅馆 or 背包旅舍, nobody calls it as 背包宾馆. Hilton hotel can be translated as 希尔顿酒店 or 希尔顿宾馆, nobody calls it 希尔顿旅馆. Novotel like business hotel can be translated as 商务旅馆, 商务酒店, 商务宾馆.
My understanding as a Mandarin speaker:
酒店 mostly refer to multi-functional fancy hotels, or at least they want to refer themselves as fancy and pricy. Normally there are pricy restaurants attached to 酒店. You would also be expected to see conference centers, gyms, bars inside a 酒店. For example Hilton will be a 酒店 - 希尔顿大酒店。 (I feel that the word 酒店 has some relation to higher social status.)
Then after that comes 宾馆. It mainly refer to some nice hotels more or less just for sleeping. So an international conference will likely to be held in a 酒店, not a 宾馆.
旅馆 & 旅舍 seems like an inn/motel to me. 旅 in Chinese means to travel, so it translates to travel-accommodation - a Motel. I say Holiday Inn would be called a 旅馆. 旅舍 is similar in some sense, but it has the nuance of independent-organization. If my mom decide to open a hotel we might call it 旅舍, but this difference is very subtle and maybe ignored in some situation.
青年旅舍 as a phrase, means hostels.
旅舍 & 旅社 maybe used interchangeably as in "accommodation". Although 旅社 sometimes short for 旅行社, is a "travel agent".
Usually 酒店 refers to larger hotels. 宾馆 can have the same meaning, but some smaller hotels are also referred to as 宾馆. 旅馆 always refers to smaller hotels. 旅舍 is not very commonly used; it appears in some hotel names near tourist attractions. In most situations, 旅社 is not usually used to refer to a place for temporary accommodation; instead it refers to a travel agency.
If you don't like things to be too complicated, simply using 宾馆 is ok.