I want to translate "Using the knife on these types of surfaces will dull the knife." This I find to be difficult grammatically as well. However, I'm not sure how to say "dull" in Mandarin, and google doesn't provide much help.
Example of 钝 (adjective):
To translate your sentence, which is also an example of 使..变钝:
快 must be used in the same sentence as the noun (刀), otherwise it doesn't mean 'sharp'. 锋利 can be used standalone.
An example using all these words:
You may say
pinyin: mo2 dun4 yi4 ba3 dau1
磨钝: make something dull.
把: classifier of knife.