The Chinese have a device called 起承转合. First you start(起) narrating on some topic. Then you continue(承) to develop the topic with added material. Then you turn(转) the narrative, either by seeking different aspects, or creating conflicts and resolving them. Finally you conclude(合) the topic.
Often it goes like this:
(起) New study shows that spanking is bad for children...
(承) The study is conducted by Harvard and it goes like...
(转) Some may say "I was spanked as a child, and I turn out to be fine." They are wrong because...
(合) So it's better not to spank our children...
It also work in poems and songs. Here is a modern example, a song by by 张玮玮, titled 《织毛衣》
This idea has its classic roots, so we can see it being used in classical poems as well. For example, 《登高》 by 杜甫, my all time favorite:
It's rather akin to the Hollywood three-act structure, where you plan the plot, develop the plot, reach the climax, then draw the happy ending.
Note that it's just one of the common devices that could be used on any type of writing. As for scientific theses, I think most of them try to follow western standards.