Which word should I use for "spoon", as a noun or as a measure.
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form the function point of view, 勺子, 瓢 and 调羹 are the same, they are a sort of object used to get water.
from the use cases point of view, 瓢 is used to get water only and not suitable to be appear on a table since it's too large, and 勺子 is used to get soup, 调羹 is used to get whatever food in your bowl. so typically in size 瓢 > 勺子 > 调羹, BUT, there's no limitation that you must use 勺子 to get soup, it's just the table manner.
BTW, 瓢 originally stands for an tool made of very old calabash which is used to get water. when a calabash gets old, it will be very hard, so people cut it in the middle and a calabash becomes two 瓢.
It should be 勺子 (or just 勺 as a measure).
调羹 has similar meaning with 勺子, but is partial to the spoon used for eat soup.
Mandarine spoken in southern and mid China: