I think I really need more context to tell the differences. Sometimes they are interchangeable.
变成 -> Become / Turn into
五年过去了，我从一个学生变成了一名老师 - I was a student. After 5 years I am a teacher now.
变化 -> Difference / Change (mostly used as noun)
五年过去了，这里还是没有什么变化 - After 5 years there's nothing changed.
变得 -> It's like
变成 but it should be used before a adjective/adverb.
五年过去了，我变得越来越谨慎了 - After 5 years I'm getting more and more careful
改变 -> Change (verb/noun)
她想改变自己的生活 - She wants to change her life (she wants to have a new lifestyle)
转变 -> Seldom used. Sometimes A more formal version of 改变
专家建议毕业生们转变就业观念 - Experts advice graduates to change their thoughts on getting a job.