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The phrase 盛开 means to bloom, as in, "池塘里的荷花盛开." Is this pronounced as "shèng kāi", or is it pronounced as "chéng kāi"?

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"shèng kāi", of cource. Generally, different pronunciation of a character has a different meaning. –  Stan May 15 at 4:14
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In this case, you pronounce it as "shèng kāi." The other pronunciation, "chéng" is for the phrase "盛饭."

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You can guess the pronunciation according to its usage:

"盛("chéng")" in 盛饭 is used as a verb, which means to fill or to contain.

"盛("shèng")" in 盛开 is used as a non-verb(adj./adv./noun), which means prosperous(ly), flourishing(ly)... (盛宴,盛装,旺盛,兴盛...)

by the way, 盛"shèng" is also used as a surname, such as this man

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