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Your understanding is right. "非语言表达方式" means expressing things without using language, here the word "language" means just spoken and written language, gestures are not considered as "language" here although they can be refereed to as "肢体语言". The reason is that you need to understand the word "language" here by context. The word "language" from the first ...


"Spiritual needs" is a typical word-to-word translation that is common in texts translated from Chinese but does not fit in the English context. You may consider other words such as "psychological" or "mental". Similarly, for "物质需要", I think "physical needs" is better than "material needs".


I would not translate 语言 as language here at all. It sounds forced. Study is also a bad choice of word here. In fact, the whole English sentence sounds unnatural to me. Aside from learning to use words to express one's thoughts and feelings, one must also learn to express oneself without using words. Words here may refer only to spoken words, but ...


In Chinese when you see "精神" modifying nouns to form phrases such as "精神需要" and "精神文明", it just means the opposite side of their material counterpart such as "物质需要" and "物质文明". So your translation of "spiritual" is correct, but you need to understand it from a different point of view as I stated above.

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