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It's not a classifier here. From dictionary: 列车 lièchē (1) [train]∶众多连续的车辆。一般指火车,尤指由牵引机车和运货或载客的车厢组成的连挂成列的火车 So you can see, 列 is short for 成列的 (lined up in a row), therefore it's put before 车 as an adj.


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About morphology: 列車 is a compound noun made up of two morphemes, with the head being 車. According to Chaofen Sun’s ‘Chinese: A Linguistic Introduction’ (p. 50), about 90% of compound nouns in Chinese have the head (nominal formant) on the right. Thus the structure of 列車 is not unusual at all. The morpheme on the left tells us what kind of car it is, as ...



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