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This is a broad question. You will use different words depending on different situations. To call someone that you are familiar with (note: this is the premise). There are several different cases. For kids: In general, the parents will give their kids a diminutive, besides the formal name.The diminutive may have different forms so that you can't find a ...


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For men: elder than you: 老+'family name'. For example: 老+王. it's ok to use this even you're the same age. younger than you: 小+'family name'. For example: 小+王. esp. leader calls his subordinate. For women: elder than you: 'family name'+ 姐. For example: 王+姐. It's not good to use ‘老’ for women. Just as you should not ask a woman how old she is. younger ...


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A form of "小"+Surname can be used, like 小王 小李. Also we can call elder person (not superior, but the same or lower level) with "老"+Surname: "老王" "老李". This form will not be adopted if the surname has two syllables (not very common in China now). And note "大" CANNOT be used.



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