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12

的 in its function as a particle is attested in the 四大名著 Four Great Classical Novels, which are written in a vernacular Mandarin-type language, dating from the Ming dynasty. The particle use of 的 is also attested from the Yuan dynasty, when it seems it was adopted for the grammatical particle of the emerging new literary language. Its earliest attestation is ...


11

Let the "foot" meaning of 足 be A, the "plenty, enough" meaning be B. Will discuss about this topic in the following two sections. Different Root First, 現代漢語規範詞典 第二版 ("Modern Chinese Standard Dictionary" 2nd Edition) suggests that meaning A and meaning B come from different origin, though they share the same character currently. Figure 1. Meanings of 足 in ...


9

As far as I know, classic Chinese is not used to "write" these languages as you think. Classic Chinese was just used as an "international" language among surrounding countries, like English nowadays. Take the Japanese Language for example. In ancient times, the Japanese had their own language, but they didn't have a writing system. Of course, China was ...


8

It means "someone" in this case. From zdic: 某人,有的人 From Iciba: [书] (某人; 有的人) someone ; some people


8

As Fivesheep pointed out, “四海” means "the whole world". The word "四海一家" means "the whole world is one family". It is used to expressed that "we are family. we shall respect each other. we shall unite", something like this, to convey the politeness from the overseas Chinese people to the local people(in your case, the Australian people). I believe this word ...


8

The Phonology of Standard Chinese by San Duanmu (端木三) has an entire chapter devoted to this topic (The Word Length Problem): In this section I review six previous approaches to the disyllabic phenomenon in Chinese. For convenience, I call them (a) the homophone-avoidance approach, (b) the speech-tempo approach, (c) the grammatical approach, (d) the ...


6

Question: 古文中哪个字有自由不受约束的意思啊? (Gǔwén zhōng nǎge zì yǒu zìyóu bu shòu yuēshù de yìsi a) - Which word in Ancient Chinese means Free and/or Unfettered? Source: Bai Du It appears there aren't single words, in modern and ancient Chinese, that have a denotative meaning of "Freedom". There are however, connotative words that can mean "free" or "to set free" in ...


6

It should be read in the original lau4 (陽平) tone, but not only because it's "classical", but primarily because the poem follows the tone pattern of a five-syllable regulated verse (五絕). Tones in Middle Chinese were classified into 平 (level), 上 (rising), 去 (departing), and 入 (entering), the latter three of which were classified as 仄 (oblique) for the ...


6

Yes, it is 踰 (yú): exceed, transgress, cross over. It is a variant of 逾. Characters are sometimes rendered differently. In this case, the phonetic is 俞 (yú), meaning "boat", and the bottom part is written similar to seal script style. Originally, the 月 and 刂 in 俞 were 舟 (zhōu, boat) and 巛 (chuān, water), and the seal character is a transition in progress. ...


5

Everything can be poetic, especially Chinese write all kinds of poems ... Part I - Nature/Astronomy Nature 自然 乘风 乘風 Ride the Wind 破浪 破浪 Break the Eave 拈花 拈花 Touching Flower 采花 採花 Picking Flower 扑蝶 撲蝶 Catching Butterfly 看海 看海 Watch | Look | Admire the Sea 听涛 聽濤 Listen to the Wave 落花 落花 Flower Dropping 流水 流水 Flowing Water 开花 開花 Blossom 结果 結果 Have Fruit ...


5

The equivalent of 子 for women is also 子. 【清·張自烈·正字通】子部:女子亦稱子 Examples from Old Chinese texts: 【孟子·告子下】逾東家牆而摟其處子,則得妻,不摟,則不得妻,則將摟之乎? The Works of Mencius: "Breaking into your landlord's house and harass the virgin girl gets you a wife; refrain from harassing and you don't get a wife. Does that mean you would do it?" ...


5

in classic Chinese, 何由 is the inverse form of 由何, and it should be in the inverse form ,however, you can understand it by understanding 由何. 何 what 由 [preposition] 1. from 2.because of 3.by(method, means,way) so 由何 could mean, from what, because of what, by what. I guess, you would less commonly(Ok, at least I would) say,"By what, did you arrive ...


5

If not, why not? There is no exact one-word equivalent of the concept of "Freedom" in Ancient Chinese, just as there are no exact one-word equivalent of 仁, 理, 道, etc in Latin, Greek or any Western languages. That's not surprising: it is what makes our world an interesting world of differences. It doesn't mean Ancient Chinese did not have or need or ...


5

This is classical Chinese, not modern Chinese. Normally in Classical Chinese 所 stands for an omitted object of a verb. 所 + Verb means ‘Verb 的东西 (the thing that is verb-ed), which is equivalent to a kind of relative clause marker (RM) in English ‘what/that is Verb-ed’. It makes the sentence passive. The 有 just means 有. In modern Chinese I would write it ...


5

No. The biggest obstacle is the script; although simple characters are still understandable, the evolution of scripts from seal script (the closest script to modern ones during Confucius's time) involved drastic changes in the appearance of characters. Those unfamiliar with the changes would have a lot of trouble recognising the characters. The shift to ...


4

Here "乃" means "be". This sentence means "This area is for old posts, and these posts are read-only." Next time, if you find "此乃" these two characters together or a noun+乃 together, "乃" properly means "be". For example: 此乃我的书. This is my book. 意识乃是大脑的一种自然属性。 Consciousness is an emergent property of the brain.


4

黃中 means the emperor, not the employment, and 黃中元吉迪 means the emperor along with the nation becomes better and better. It is the result, and via this the sentence would express the idea that it's a pleasure of your contributions to the nation. So it concludes that the person is a government employee.


4

This article suggests that the original text was 道可道,非恒道. That is, 恒 not 常 (meaning 永恒 = eternal, unchanging). This dictionary definition for 常 also includes the meaning "长久,经久不变" (and gives the example 常量, with an alternate form 恒量).


4

四海如家 doesn't sound like an idiom. I think 四海为家 is what you are talking about. In ancient china, people didn't have the idea of oceans named Pacific, Indian... They tended to believe china was surrounded by 4 seas, 东海, 南海, 西海, 北海(if you know the chinese myths you might have heard of 四海龙王). In the idiom, 四海 means anywhere, or the whole world (Ancient chinese ...


4

EDIT: I didn't realize that there were typos in the quotation: The original one should be 臣 以臣弑君、可謂仁乎 呼 I suppose 臣以弑君 might be an uncommon variant, but it is still grammatical. 臣以弑君 = 以臣弑君 killing his lord as a vassal. 以 is used as a preposition “as” but the word order is reversed, making it looks like a post-position. The sentence structure is ...


3

As read in reference from Wikipedia (文言文), classic Chinese (文言文) was the oral Chinese back to the 先秦 era (era before Qing Dynasty, i.e. before 221BC). Even as early as in Han Dynasty (汉朝, 202BC-220) to Tang Dynasty (唐朝, 618-907) period, the oral Chinese had already been shifting apart from classic Chinese (written) and the new Chinese (白话文) had already been ...


3

These two books have been recommended from another site (I haven't read these myself): An Introduction to Literary Chinese: Revised Edition (Harvard East Asian Monographs) by Michael Anthony Fuller (2004) A New Practical Primer of Literary Chinese (Harvard East Asian Monographs) by Paul F. Rouzer (2007) Aside from learning yourself, another option is to ...


3

Although they may have similar meaning nowadays, I would say they didn't come from the same word. By comparing 篆書(~221 B.C.), they are totally different. And 的 seems to be a pretty new word because I couldn't found it in bone script. Not only the appeal but the meaning is also different. The old 之, graphically means one foot on the ground, and the ...


3

sometimes it's the same but not all the time. say, 道路 and 路途, here they mean the same thing, the way or road. however, in the history of China, 道 has more meaning than it appears. as you know, Taoism begins with the discussion of 道. it means the essence of the universe. another example is 道不同不相为谋, here 道 actually means the choice of life. 途 won't express ...


3

If Cicero came back to life today and scribbled a message, could most modern French people understand it? Well... that depends on how much Latin they studied. The case with modern Mandarin (henceforth MSM) speakers reading Classical Chinese is similar: Classical Chinese and MSM share a script (as do Latin and French). Classical Chinese and MSM have shared ...


2

The wiki link you provided can explain this very well. For historic reasons, the Chinese writing system influenced almost all of East Asia. So many countries and nations used Chinese characters or borrowed a subset of Chinese characters. That's another story. If you want the answer to this question, you should check the History books. In short, countries ...


2

In general, it is 女. There are books such as 女訓 (Advice for Women) and 烈女傳 (Biographies of Notable Women). Also, 子 in 青青子衿 explicity referring to the lady's lover (where the whole sentence means her lover's green collar) , instead of referring to a man.


2

Whenever I see a character with two very different meanings (e.g. 重 heavy/again, 長 long/elder), I assume that it's a phonetic loan character (also called rebus). This is one of the five major types of Chinese characters (the Wikipedia article I linked to lists six, but I don't remember reading about the last case before, and from the sound of it it's so rare ...


2

The pronunciation is getting simplified (for some unknown reason) and the number of homophones has increased a lot. In order to avoid the ambiguity, it is natural to encode more information (using additional characters). In some southern dialects, the old monosyllabic words are still in use. For instance, in Min dialect, 筷子 are still called 箸, 剪刀 called 铰, ...


2

For the translation of “常” , I think using “ common” or “usual” if fine, like the first sentence “ 道可道,非常道”. And I don’t think that “each chinese character should receive only one translation throughout the book”, but for the special concepts that Laozi pointed out, I think they just have one translation throughout the book.



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