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12

的 in its function as a particle is attested in the 四大名著 Four Great Classical Novels, which are written in a vernacular Mandarin-type language, dating from the Ming dynasty. The particle use of 的 is also attested from the Yuan dynasty, when it seems it was adopted for the grammatical particle of the emerging new literary language. Its earliest attestation is ...


11

Let the "foot" meaning of 足 be A, the "plenty, enough" meaning be B. Will discuss about this topic in the following two sections. Different Root First, 現代漢語規範詞典 第二版 ("Modern Chinese Standard Dictionary" 2nd Edition) suggests that meaning A and meaning B come from different origin, though they share the same character currently. Figure 1. Meanings of 足 in ...


10

There are people studying this. Classical Chinese Character Frequency List Modern Chinese Character Frequency List Now do your own comparisons because I'm lazy. Update -- I feel less lazy today so I'll give it a shot. For obvious purposes, let't take the first 1000 characters in the classical list and see where they go in the trend. I can't do scripts ...


9

It means "someone" in this case. From zdic: 某人,有的人 From Iciba: [书] (某人; 有的人) someone ; some people


9

As far as I know, classic Chinese is not used to "write" these languages as you think. Classic Chinese was just used as an "international" language among surrounding countries, like English nowadays. Take the Japanese Language for example. In ancient times, the Japanese had their own language, but they didn't have a writing system. Of course, China was ...


8

The Phonology of Standard Chinese by San Duanmu (端木三) has an entire chapter devoted to this topic (The Word Length Problem): In this section I review six previous approaches to the disyllabic phenomenon in Chinese. For convenience, I call them (a) the homophone-avoidance approach, (b) the speech-tempo approach, (c) the grammatical approach, (d) the ...


8

As Fivesheep pointed out, “四海” means "the whole world". The word "四海一家" means "the whole world is one family". It is used to expressed that "we are family. we shall respect each other. we shall unite", something like this, to convey the politeness from the overseas Chinese people to the local people(in your case, the Australian people). I believe this word ...


7

What you call "literary Chinese" is actually classical Chinese, a rather static language that evolved 2500 years ago and has since been used as a model language in education, rituals and other rather fixed events. Classical Chinese is therefore akin to Latin in Europe, actually covering approximately the same time span and the same usage. You can pronounce ...


7

Question: 古文中哪个字有自由不受约束的意思啊? (Gǔwén zhōng nǎge zì yǒu zìyóu bu shòu yuēshù de yìsi a) - Which word in Ancient Chinese means Free and/or Unfettered? Source: Bai Du It appears there aren't single words, in modern and ancient Chinese, that have a denotative meaning of "Freedom". There are however, connotative words that can mean "free" or "to set free" in ...


7

Maybe 以子之矛,攻子之盾 is the answer, I couldn't find another alternative. Description on Baidu Baike


6

If not, why not? There is no exact one-word equivalent of the concept of "Freedom" in Ancient Chinese, just as there are no exact one-word equivalent of 仁, 理, 道, etc in Latin, Greek or any Western languages. That's not surprising: it is what makes our world an interesting world of differences. It doesn't mean Ancient Chinese did not have or need or ...


6

It should be read in the original lau4 (陽平) tone, but not only because it's "classical", but primarily because the poem follows the tone pattern of a five-syllable regulated verse (五絕). Tones in Middle Chinese were classified into 平 (level), 上 (rising), 去 (departing), and 入 (entering), the latter three of which were classified as 仄 (oblique) for the ...


6

The equivalent of 子 for women is also 子. 【清·張自烈·正字通】子部:女子亦稱子 Examples from Old Chinese texts: 【孟子·告子下】逾東家牆而摟其處子,則得妻,不摟,則不得妻,則將摟之乎? The Works of Mencius: "Breaking into your landlord's house and harass the virgin girl gets you a wife; refrain from harassing and you don't get a wife. Does that mean you would do it?" ...


6

Yes, it is 踰 (yú): exceed, transgress, cross over. It is a variant of 逾. Characters are sometimes rendered differently. In this case, the phonetic is 俞 (yú), meaning "boat", and the bottom part is written similar to seal script style. Originally, the 月 and 刂 in 俞 were 舟 (zhōu, boat) and 巛 (chuān, water), and the seal character is a transition in progress. ...


5

Everything can be poetic, especially Chinese write all kinds of poems ... Part I - Nature/Astronomy Nature 自然 乘风 乘風 Ride the Wind 破浪 破浪 Break the Eave 拈花 拈花 Touching Flower 采花 採花 Picking Flower 扑蝶 撲蝶 Catching Butterfly 看海 看海 Watch | Look | Admire the Sea 听涛 聽濤 Listen to the Wave 落花 落花 Flower Dropping 流水 流水 Flowing Water 开花 開花 Blossom 结果 結果 Have Fruit ...


5

in classic Chinese, 何由 is the inverse form of 由何, and it should be in the inverse form ,however, you can understand it by understanding 由何. 何 what 由 [preposition] 1. from 2.because of 3.by(method, means,way) so 由何 could mean, from what, because of what, by what. I guess, you would less commonly(Ok, at least I would) say,"By what, did you arrive ...


5

These two books have been recommended from another site (I haven't read these myself): An Introduction to Literary Chinese: Revised Edition (Harvard East Asian Monographs) by Michael Anthony Fuller (2004) A New Practical Primer of Literary Chinese (Harvard East Asian Monographs) by Paul F. Rouzer (2007) Aside from learning yourself, another option is to ...


5

This is classical Chinese, not modern Chinese. Normally in Classical Chinese 所 stands for an omitted object of a verb. 所 + Verb means ‘Verb 的东西 (the thing that is verb-ed), which is equivalent to a kind of relative clause marker (RM) in English ‘what/that is Verb-ed’. It makes the sentence passive. The 有 just means 有. In modern Chinese I would write it ...


5

No. The biggest obstacle is the script; although simple characters are still understandable, the evolution of scripts from seal script (the closest script to modern ones during Confucius's time) involved drastic changes in the appearance of characters. Those unfamiliar with the changes would have a lot of trouble recognising the characters. The shift to ...


5

If you are looking for an exact English translation, the answer is that there isn't one. It is a tradition in Chinese culture. When you are talking about/to other people, you should butter him/her up by exaggerating his/her achievements, wealth, position and etc. And do the opposite thing when talking about yourself. It's all about being polite (when ...


5

Middle Chinese starting from the Sui dynasty (with the Qièyùn, 切韻, published in 601 CE) actually documented its phonology. These are called rime tables, and break down each character pronunciation into groups by tone and by final. These were employed by scholars in both reciting and composing verse. Using the fanqie 反切 spelling would also have aided scholars ...


4

黃中 means the emperor, not the employment, and 黃中元吉迪 means the emperor along with the nation becomes better and better. It is the result, and via this the sentence would express the idea that it's a pleasure of your contributions to the nation. So it concludes that the person is a government employee.


4

Here "乃" means "be". This sentence means "This area is for old posts, and these posts are read-only." Next time, if you find "此乃" these two characters together or a noun+乃 together, "乃" properly means "be". For example: 此乃我的书. This is my book. 意识乃是大脑的一种自然属性。 Consciousness is an emergent property of the brain.


4

This article suggests that the original text was 道可道,非恒道. That is, 恒 not 常 (meaning 永恒 = eternal, unchanging). This dictionary definition for 常 also includes the meaning "长久,经久不变" (and gives the example 常量, with an alternate form 恒量).


4

四海如家 doesn't sound like an idiom. I think 四海为家 is what you are talking about. In ancient china, people didn't have the idea of oceans named Pacific, Indian... They tended to believe china was surrounded by 4 seas, 东海, 南海, 西海, 北海(if you know the chinese myths you might have heard of 四海龙王). In the idiom, 四海 means anywhere, or the whole world (Ancient chinese ...


4

EDIT: I didn't realize that there were typos in the quotation: The original one should be 臣 以臣弑君、可謂仁乎 呼 I suppose 臣以弑君 might be an uncommon variant, but it is still grammatical. 臣以弑君 = 以臣弑君 killing his lord as a vassal. 以 is used as a preposition “as” but the word order is reversed, making it looks like a post-position. The sentence structure is ...


4

The following is an excerpt from wikipedia, Classical Chinese Grammar: Grammar Further information: Classical Chinese lexicon Classical Chinese is distinguished from written vernacular Chinese in its style, which appears extremely concise and compact to modern Chinese speakers, and to some extent in the use of different lexical items ...


4

According to 二十五史的字数是多少?, most of the classics contain five to six thousand unique characters. 《辽史》(Liao history) contains as few as 4071; 《清史》(Qing history) contains as many as 8080. 《史记》93 BC contains 5122 unique characters; 《汉书》83 AD, 5833 unique characters; 《新唐书》1060 AD, 6346字; 《清史》1927 AD, 8080字. According to this site, the first dictionary ...


4

That is a standard character, simplified 携, meaning carry, take along, hold in hand. A common word is 携带 (carry).


3

As read in reference from Wikipedia (文言文), classic Chinese (文言文) was the oral Chinese back to the 先秦 era (era before Qing Dynasty, i.e. before 221BC). Even as early as in Han Dynasty (汉朝, 202BC-220) to Tang Dynasty (唐朝, 618-907) period, the oral Chinese had already been shifting apart from classic Chinese (written) and the new Chinese (白话文) had already been ...



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