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爾/尔 in Classical Chinese can be used similarly to 然, roughly meaning "thus/so/in such a manner", changing the word to which it's suffixed into an adverb. Here's an example from Mencius 孟子 we can analyze: 一簞食,一豆羹:得之則生,弗得則死。嘑爾而與之,行道之人弗受;蹴爾而與之,乞人不屑也。 My attempt at a faithful English translation: A basket of rice, a platter of soup: with them one ...


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Examples for 尔 used as a adverbial suffix: 莞尔,an adverb for "smile". 卓尔,an adverb for… er… "act extraordinarily". 率尔,an adverb for "act rashly, etc.". Links above are references for the character and phrases, maybe a little elusive for non-native speakers, but you can have a glance.


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There are two kinds of morphology: inflectional and derivational. The first is like English –ed or –s, or case endings in languages like German or Latin. Adding an inflectional morpheme doesn’t make a new word, but it changes the grammatical function. Derivational morphology, on the other hand, does make a new word. It might be a different part of ...


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A commonly accepted thesis: Sino-tibetan languages A hypothesis: Dené–Caucasian languages


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The following is an excerpt from wikipedia, Classical Chinese Grammar: Grammar Further information: Classical Chinese lexicon Classical Chinese is distinguished from written vernacular Chinese in its style, which appears extremely concise and compact to modern Chinese speakers, and to some extent in the use of different lexical items ...



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