New answers tagged classical-chinese
Here's an expansion from 《史記》·《齊太公世家》that clarifies: 「『東至海，西至河，南至穆陵，北至無棣，五侯九伯，實得征之。』齊由此得征伐，為大國。」 In this expansion, 實 means "truly"/"legitimately" (實) authorized to (得) launch expeditions (征) against them (之): launch expeditions against them with actual authority. So "legitimately" might be your best single word for the apparent function of 實 here. 實 ...
I agree with songyuanyao. But I want to add some more. The right column is 天朗氣清. It should be the title of the paint. 天朗氣清 = clear(朗) sky(天) and fresh(清) air(氣). The left column should be (I think) 五峰山樵. 五峰山 = a mountain in China. woodman = 樵. It is the pen name of the author. But I could be wrong since googling it gives nothing.
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