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Modern Chinese has underwent many pronunciation changes since characters were first invented and phonetic components often reflect words as they were pronounced in Old Chinese rather than modern Chinese. The pronunciations of 的 and 勺 were much more similar in Old Chinese. This link explains: 的 and 勺 had roughly similar pronunciations in Old Chinese; ...


及 means to reach. Some examples: 及格: to pass a test. Literally 'to reach the bar'. 长发及腰: 'long hair reaching waistline'. 涉及: to involve. Literally 'intervention reaches to'. 提及: to mention. Literally '(the scope of) mentioning reaches to'. 力所能及: within grasp. Literally 'capability that (one) can reach'.


I do not know of names for other corners of the house, but the southwestern corner is considered traditionally as the privileged site suitable for worshipping deities. 《禮·曲禮》 爲人子者,居不主奧。 "The child does not live in the southwestern corner." In other words, one should show deference to one's parents by yielding the southwestern corner.


臾 is actually a verb meaning "to tie up and drag", hence what the character looked like. But it can be used together with 須 as a noun, i.e. as 須臾, to mean "a while". This practice emerged by the Warring States era and so is just about as ancient as the time the character took definitive shape..


You seem to think the studies are vague or just imaginary. They are not. For example, 人 is the drawing of a man, 山 is the picture of a mountain. The relation is clear and you don't need to be very imaginative to draw the conclusions. Same with ideograms in all ideographic languages, the relation of a symbol and its meaning is sometimes dead obvious. Do ...


《說文》:草器也。古象形。 清代段玉裁『說文解字注』:束縛捽抴爲臾曳 means "tie and draw" (in ancient time, tie grasses) After all there are derived meaning, 《集韵》:臾,善也。 also means "FINE" reference: http://www.zdic.net/z/22/js/81FE.htm

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