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年 is not measure word. It is noun. 那年夏天: the summer of that year 那个夏天: that summer They both refer to a specific summer, but the first one leaves the context on the year, while the second one solely focuses on the summer. To demonstrate the difference with follow-up questions: Conversation 1: 那年夏天特别热。It was extremely hot in the summer of ...


4

for meaning change due to 起来 following verb see any dictionary e。g。HSK dictionary (汉语水平考试词典) In cases shown above verb is a 离合词 which just means that 起来 also is separated,but does not seem to change the generally valid effect of adding 起来 following verb。 起来(5)用在动词后面,表示动作完成,并有聚拢,合并在一起的意思 indicate gathering together or closing):国家终于统一~了|他把钱都藏~了 ...


3

This infix -起-来 is usually considered a variation of the suffix -起来, and analysed as having an inceptive aspect, also called the inchoative aspect. The sense that it produces is "starting to do", "to begin to" etc. 起来 often interacts with 了 to form a particular viewpoint of an "accomplishment" action as having starting in the past, with the focus on the ...


2

in 那年夏天 那年 is an attributive (定语)modifying or restricting the noun 夏天, it seems the phrase can be expanded to 那年的夏天, 那个夏天 is without this attributive,instead the noun 夏天 is preceded by the demonstrative pronoun 那,demonstrative pronouns 这,那 like numerals according to grammar rules require measure words,but in the case of 这 and 那 are often omitted,so ...



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