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13

I'd like to offer a slightly different perspective from the other answers, and suggest that the most important difference between the two is that 太陽 is a free word, whereas 日 is a bound morpheme, i.e. it cannot appear as an independent word. Think of 太陽 as 'sun' and '日' as sol-. Of course they are not word for word identical with the English forms, but the ...


9

Some disagreements with above. Though '七曜' did exist in Chinese philosophy and literature from the very beginning, it is almost certain that the practice of using '七曜' to notate the seven days of a week came from the western world via India around the Tang Dynasty. In spite of this, it was not until the dawn of the Chinese dynasties that Chinese people ...


8

There are two things to be cleared: To say a language is tenseless means it does not have a grammatical category of tense (e.g. word morphology, auxiliary verbs and tense particles in English). Chinese sentences do refer to time but by using lexical words such as adverbs and verbs, with a combination of aspect, mood and other language elements. The ...


8

Here's a good English definition and explanation with an example sentence to get you started: A Students Dictionary of Classical and Medieval Chinese 2 negative particle of the perfective: had not, have not, will have not; similar to 末 mò and often accompanied by perfective-final 矣 yǐ; mostly found in Zuozhuan 左傳 and Guoyu 國語, later mainly for archaic ...


8

A completely parallel English version of the Chinese would be: I didn't (or don't) understand the first word (or sentence) that you just said. 的 is functionally equivalent here to 'that': the first word (or sentence) | that | you just said. 你刚说 | 的 | 第一句话 Notice that the order of the clause is reversed in Chinese and English. This is because Chinese ...


7

是 in the first context is only used to say: Noun1 是 Noun2 You never say 我是很好, because 好 isn't a noun. You can say 我是美国人 他是男孩子 我是李红 because all those relate one noun to another. In the case of 我25岁了, 25 years old isn't a noun, it's a state, and so we don't use 是. For a simple summary, 是 only relates 2 nouns to each other. If it's not a ...


7

Note: this answer may well be slightly incomplete. Usage of to that can be translated to 去 is the case only in specific settings. For instance, in English, I like to read books is grammatically correct. However, the Chinese equivalent would be 我喜欢看书: there is no addition of something like 去 before the verb (i.e. 看). Thus, at the very least, there is no ...


7

日 both means sun and day (and is short for Japan, etc.), but the most common meaning of 日 is day or daytime. E. g. : 每日 every day, daily 日志 journal, log 昨日 yesterday 日报 daily (paper) and many-many more. The only examples I can think of where 日 denotes the Sun and not day/daily are: 日出 (rì chū) sunrise 旭日 (xùrì) rising sun 烈日 (lièrì) scorching sun 红日 ...


7

This is an interesting question, because it allows us to look at how words are formed in modern Chinese. The Characters Both 兒 and 子 meant "child" or "son" in ancient Chinese. 兒 was more specific, while 子 had a variety of other uses, like "master" (as in 孔子 - master Kong/Confucius). When 子 meant child, it was somewhat inclusive of female children, although ...


6

As you had said, 所 is not redundant. But to me, "有帮助" and "有所帮助" doesn't have that much differences, especially when you are in an oral conversation with Chinese people. As for your explanation for "有所謂", the translation for "这件案子有所谓" is "This case matters." You are correct. But I don't think that it has the meaning of "has something that it says". Yes, "謂 ...


6

The reason is that 天, 日, 周, 年 are themselves counter words / classifiers (so they don't need an extra one), while 星期, 礼拜, 月 are not classifiers and therefore require a classifier, which happen to be 个 for the all of them. Note that although 月 is listed with the ones that require a classifier, it's quite frequent to hear 每月 as well (which I believe makes ...


6

Generally speaking, there isn't much of a direct, one-to-one mapping of phrases to English phrases with determiners, particularly when "the" is used in more general ways. Examples abound in constructions like The Flowers of Evil (恶之花) or "The Brothers Grimm" (格林兄弟). However, these have additional qualifiers "恶之" or "格林" that specify which flowers or which ...


6

I think ice cream is probably not the best example to demonstrate this, since it comes in many forms and some are counted as one ice cream (e.g. those that are attached to a stick), others as some ice cream (those that come in a huge platic box and you need to create portions and serve them to your family members). So I'll use a different example, something ...


6

In general, "我不能找": I'm not able/ allowed/ permitted/ qualified to look for something/somebody. "我找不到": I am not able to/ cannot find the things that I am looking for. Typically, native speaker seldom use "我不能找". English speakers don't quite say "I cannot look for something" either, right?


6

前面 means "in front of" or "at the front of". It can be used for anything that has a front, though in some cases just 前 may be better. 面前 means "in front of the face". It can only be used in the context of things that (literally or metaphorically) have a face. In many cases it carries a sense of "in the face of" or "in the view of". For example: 法律面前没有特权 ...


6

The article in the first link is clearly machine-translated from the original version in the second link with some partials not even translated. A lot of the sentences are difficult to understand, if they make any sense at all. 让任意的值是在一个上下文当中 is just wrong in Chinese. One proper translation might be 把任意值放到上下文当中.


5

最后吃的菜 = 最后吃的(that you eat last) + 菜(dish/food); so, 最后吃的菜 = "the dish that you eat last" "最后吃的菜" is a noun phrase and it is "菜" essentially. 吃最后的菜 = 吃(eat) + 最后的菜(the last dish / the leftovers); so, 吃最后的菜 = “eat the last dish / leftovers” "吃最后的菜" can be regared as an imperative sentence and it means "eat something". If you put a subject ...


5

There is a lot that could be said here, but the basic problem is that Chinese just doesn't have articles, either definite or indefinite. Chinese is not the only language like this. Japanese and Latin don't have articles either. Here is the difference between English and Chinese in its simplest form: He is student. Not possible. He is a student. ...


5

是否 roughly maps to whether in a yes-no interrogative sentence or clause. For your sentence, you should use 不知道 or 不确定 instead of 没确定. 没确定 means haven't confirmed yet. Also 听得清 (could hear) is more polite than 听清了 (have heard). If the context allows, it is more natural to omit 我说的话. I wasn't sure if you could hear me clearly. 我不确定你是否听得清(我说的话)。 ...


5

Although it looks like an idiom expression (chengyu), I believe it is actually a coined phrase, specifically for the TV adaptation of the Wuxia novel (射鵰英雄傳, 1983 TVB Hongkong) you mentioned. Literally, 鐵血丹心 can translate to "Iron blood scarlet heart". There is the connotation of the conflict between love and patriotism and such, but its a bit far fetched ...


5

If, 當 = should / must 自警 = self-discipline What do you think their grammatical roles are?


5

你的生日是什麼時候? (When is your birthday?) is the proper way to propose a question. 你(的)生日什麼時候? is gramatically incorrect but seldom heard when speaking for shortness Also, 你(的)生日是哪一天? (What day is your birthday?) and, 你什麼時候生日? are frequently used for asking about birthdays. These can also be used in many other occations. For example: 你什麼時候出去的? (When did you ...


5

大约 means "approximately", 差不多 means "almost". 大约 is normally used as an adjective or adverb in phrases like: 大约四英尺厚的雪 snow that is approximately 4 inches thick 差不多 can be used in a similar way, but it's more commonly used as an adjective-verb: 这两本书的内容都差不多 these two books' contents are about the same However, 这两本书的内容都差不多一样 (with 差不多 as an adverb) means ...


4

No. The words have different meanings. Let's look at your first sentence: 他十分坦率地[给]我讲了他的故事 : He openly told me his story. If we were to replace 给 with 替: 他十分坦率地[替]我讲了他的故事: He openly told his story for me (implying that I was supposed to be the one telling the story). If we were to replace 给 with 为: 他十分坦率地[为]我讲了他的故事: He openly told his story to me for my ...


4

yes, fx, 他会来吗?是的,他会来。 yes,it depends on the context. we use extra word to express the confidence, fx.'一定',‘必然’。


4

(1) A排除对B的需求 - A eliminates the need for B (2) A消除对B的需要 - ditto Don't forget to use 对 as 'preposition'.


4

嘛 has 2 functions. The first translates as showing something's obvious, much like an "of course" would on the end of sentences in English. An example would be 「你的妹妹很漂亮嘛」if you're taking it as obvious their little sister is pretty (I assume you're using 繁字體). Clearly not the case here, as your example is in the middle of a sentence. The second function is ...


4

一 in this construction has the meaning of ”once”. Once the business got started it was very successful, but later on we encountered difficulties. Another example: 一看他的样子就知道他是个骗子。


4

Here, 一 should not be parsed by itself, but instead put together with 开始 to form the phrase 一开始, which means "at the beginning" or "initially". So the correct translation would be: 事情一开始进展得很顺利,但后来我们遇到了困难 At the beginning, everything was going smoothly, but later we encountered difficulties. Here are some more examples: 一开始,我不喜欢她。后来,我爱上了她。 At the ...


4

Over a thousand. An equivalent is 千余苹果.



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