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13

Basically they have the same meanings. Now let's focus on the difference, but first wrap your head in duct tapes in case it explodes. 往往 is usually used with conditions supplied. Without any condition it is usually wrong: 我常常加班。 -- Good. 我往往加班。 -- Wrong. 北京常常下雪。-- Good. 北京往往下雪。 -- Wrong. 北京往往在冬天下雪。-- Good. Notice the constraint. ...


11

This is a good question. 字了一 should be understood as: (and his) 字 (is) 了一 Thousands years ago, many people in China have a special name besides their first name and last name though nowadays most of Chinese don't have one. And this special name is often described after '字'. For example: 刘备,字玄德. According to some reference in Chinese, 字 sometimes can ...


11

年 is not measure word. It is noun. 那年夏天: the summer of that year 那个夏天: that summer They both refer to a specific summer, but the first one leaves the context on the year, while the second one solely focuses on the summer. To demonstrate the difference with follow-up questions: Conversation 1: 那年夏天特别热。It was extremely hot in the summer of ...


10

The first sentence means All of us are not students and the second one Not all of us are students (thus some of us may have occupations other than students). 都不是 (all not) is full negation and 不都是 (not all) is partial negation.


10

This pattern, like you mentioned, seems to be referred to as "A里AB"式 in Chinese. A quick search came up with the following list of words: 糊里糊涂hū lǐ hū tú 怪里怪气guài lǐ guài qì 流里流气liú lǐ liú qì 傻里傻气shǎ lǐ shǎ qì 土里土气tǔ lǐ tǔ qì 慌里慌张huāng lǐ huāng zhāng 妖里妖气yāo lǐ yāo qì 彻里彻外chè lǐ chè wài 胡里胡涂hú lǐ hú tú 没里没外méi lǐ méi wài 秀里秀气xiù lǐ xiù qì 歇里歇松xiē lǐ xiē ...


10

手机上 describes the act is observed by something from outside of the cellphone through the screen. I guess most of the humanity will do this way. 手机里, in contrast, suggests something is really inside the phone, e.g. in memory, storage etc. So, 手机里的照片 "pictures (stored) on the phone" and 手机上的照片 "pictures (found) on the phone" may indicate the same thing. But ...


9

I think it is a terribly bad idea learning Mandarin by trying to map grammar from Western languages onto it. There is no such thing as countable nouns in Chinese, precisely because nouns do not have plurals. Conversely, you can make any noun ”countable” by adding a classifier to it: 你要一杯咖啡吗?


8

If you are referring to "put my head in my hands and cried", My suggestion would be「抱頭痛哭」 抱: Holding / 頭: Head / 痛哭: Cry badly In case you don't stick with "Crying", you can still use it this way: I hold my head in my hands as i read his article 在讀這篇文章的時候,我以手抱頭。


8

字了一 means 表字:了一。 表字: Chinese style name; courtesy name (a name traditionally given to Chinese males at the age of 20 (also called 字)) check http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E8%A1%A8%E5%AD%97 http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-mo/%E8%A1%A8%E5%AD%97


7

In Mandarin, we use the prefix "素". In Cantonese, we use the prefix "齋" And the order is significant too: "素墨西哥卷" implies that the original burrito contains meat and this one is a customized version for vegetarian. "墨西哥素卷" implies that this vegetarian burrito is original Mexico food. On the other hand, as wuyefeibao mentioned, you can add "的" in the ...


7

免费 means free of charge. As pointed out by Wikipedia, it is usually applied to commercial products or services that normally charge money and now for free as a part of business strategy. E.g. 免费的午餐 (free lunch), 免费试吃 (free sample of food), etc. 无偿 means no compensation, or 'not asking anything for return'. It is usually applied to non-profit, voluntary ...


7

多 is used for approximate number, which is one-tenth of the measure unit prior to 多. 四块多美金 means 4.0-4.9 dollars. 四多块美金 is not correct, 多 should be placed after the measure word 块 for unit digit. 三十多条蛇 means 30-39 snakes, and 三十条多蛇 is not correct, because the measure unit of 蛇 could not be decimal.


7

To answer directly towards your questions, Is 起 significantly more formal? No, it is not. It is commonly used in spoken language, casual writings and formal writings. Could I use it in day to day writing? (Say a diary?) Yes, and it sounds perfectly natural. ”从明天起, 我会做一个幸福的人“ - what is the difference between this and say "从明天开始?“. As the other ...


7

太 -> too, extremely, very 他不高兴 -> He's not happy -> He's unhappy 他不太高兴 -> He's not very happy -> He's a little unhappy


7

男兒 is MAN 當 is 應當, which means SHOULD,MUST 自 means 自己, SELF 強 is a verb short for 圖強,here 圖 means FIND WAYS TO DO STH,and 強 means TO BE STRONG. So 男兒當自強 means A man should find ways to make himself strong


7

A quick browse on Google Scholar yields a few results. Macau Cantonese appears to be intermediate between Zhongshan Cantonese and Hong Kong Cantonese. There is only one rising tone derived from Middle Chinese 上聲, which is pronounced closer to the lower one of Guangzhou and Hong Kong Cantonese. This brings it closer to Zhongshan Cantonese. However, this ...


7

You're correct that 历史 is too splendid a word for an ordinary office building. Besides, you cannot put it together with 几年 without humor, because the question word 几 usually stands for a small, namely one digit number. (几十年 or 几百年 is acceptable.) (EDIT: It's a universal fact in Mandarin that you should use 多少 for asking a truly indeterminate number of ...


7

if i have 10 apples , i give you 5 and keep the another 5 myself , it called "平均"; Here "picture 1" is called “均匀”, while picture 2 is called “不均匀”. [picture 1] [picture 2]


7

It's actually very common to say “我有问题”, and indeed it would cause ambiguity without contexts. I think it's because 问题 could be both "question" and "problem". The ambiguity can only be cleared within the context. Although ambiguous usage should be avoided when it's likely to create confusion (actually, eliminating ambiguity in sentences is a vey common ...


6

you can also use “从前”,“过去”,“曾经” to indicate the past time, but both imply that the current situation is opposite of the previous. This restaurant used to be popular among foreigners(,but now is not that popular). 这家餐厅从前很受外国人的欢迎(,但现在已经不那么受欢迎了)。 这家餐厅过去很受外国人的欢迎(,但现在已经不那么受欢迎了)。 这家餐厅曾经很受外国人的欢迎(,但现在已经不那么受欢迎了)。 if you want to use "已经" to express "have been", ...


6

IMO, 最近如何 is a little formal, while 最近怎么样 is much natural and genial. Anyway, I think it's OK for a formal social occasion. BTW: When 如何 is used in the context for how to do sth such as 如何刻录dvd, it's normal.


6

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contraction_%28grammar%29#Chinese gives the following (just copied it in): 諸 = 之乎 (In some rarer cases 諸 can also be contraction for 有之乎. 諸 can be used on its own with the meaning of "all, the class of", as in 諸侯 "the feudal lords.") 焉 = 於之 (於之 is never used; only 焉.) 旃 = 之焉 (Rare.) 爰 = 于之 (Rare. The prepositions 於, 于, and 乎 ...


6

下来 puts an emphasis on the fact that the action is completed. 雨停下来了。The rain (has) stopped. (It's over, it's not raining anymore). 我们把休假的地方决定下来了。We have decided where to go on holiday. (The decision is completed, it's done/settled) 他慌乱平静下来了。His frenzy calmed DOWN. (May be this is the closest example in English where we use the same directional ...


6

ABC calls this a 连词, which they explain like this: Conjunction Liáncí 连词 A conjunction is a word that joins phrases or sentences together to form a larger sentence or chunk of thought. Some examples include érqiě 'furthermore', suīrán 'although', suǒyǐ 'therefore', jiù 'then' and yàoburán 'otherwise'. here's ABC's relative entry for 来: ...


6

甲is the first stem of Celestial or Heavenly Stems. We use 甲 as 第一(NO.1) or 顶级(top). Hence, 桂林山水甲天下 means 桂林山水天下第一。 甲天下 means best in the world or No.1 in the world Anohter example, Lega Serie A is the top football league in Italy, which is translated as 意大利甲级联赛。


6

This infix -起-来 is usually considered a variation of the suffix -起来, and analysed as having an inceptive aspect, also called the inchoative aspect. The sense that it produces is "starting to do", "to begin to" etc. 起来 often interacts with 了 to form a particular viewpoint of an "accomplishment" action as having starting in the past, with the focus on the ...


6

都 is an adverb. The subject is 你(的)小店. 你最近都在做些什么啊? 你都去过那些地方? 你平时都听些什么样的歌? 你都怎么想的? ... When 都 is used, the question sounds less specific. The speaker either expects a long or complete list, or expects the listener to elaborate at length or in detail.


6

首先,这是一个方言用语(很可能是四川一带某地的方言),并不是汉语常用的规范用语,但用在这部小说里是正确的,反映出了人物所处的地域,正确地体现了人物的性格特征。 “三神不挂二神”,意思的确是“精神不集中,不安心,不专注”,神指的是“精神”,比如“心神不定”,“神智恍惚”等等。 其实“三神不挂二神”和汉语中的一个成语“三心二意”是相通的,可以将其视为一种方言变体。 “三神”是古汉语中的习用词,可有很多意思。“三”往往用于实指或虚指数量,如“三元”、“三军”、“再三”,等等。 而“三”和其他数目字又常常连用构词,比如“二”或“两”就常常用来搭配构成习语,如“三心二意”、“三长两短”、“三天打鱼两天晒网”等等,这里也是类似的用法,是某地的方言而已。 i.e. First of all, this is a ...


6

the problem may be that the A被B C and A由B C are superficially similar but grammatically completely different. A由... seems like more a topic-comment structure for me, with A being the topic and "由B C" being the comment about the topic, not anything performed on the topic. 被 is conceptually linked to A - it is A having something done to it - whereas 由 is ...


6

Chinese speakers like 4-beat rythm better, so you should be using 喜不喜欢 most of the time.



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