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It happens on many characters.I think you are learning simplified Chinese,according to your picture,够 is right。If Cantonese or traditional Chinese,use the other one.
够 or 夠 shared the same meaning and same pronunciation. We called this situation as 異體字(Variant character). In Taiwan or Hong Kong, we use 夠 more frequently than 够. In Mainland China, they use the opposite one more frequent. All of us can understand both words. For more about variant character in Chinese, you may refer to ...
Let me try to answer your question, though I am not a professional in Chinese language. Seems you are talking about the so-called radical-phonetic characters, and you are asking a way to spot them among tons of Chinese characters. I have a trick here for you, since I always use it when I, as a Chinese, don't know the character. First of all, you need to be ...
They are not much related. The common part in these characters is 大/big, which is the pictograph of front of a person. 天 is sky, which is represented by the line above the person. 夭's original meaning is bending one's neck, represented by a curve on person's head. It's extended meaning is "young", because young plants are curved. The other two are ...
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