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10

As far as I know, classic Chinese is not used to "write" these languages as you think. Classic Chinese was just used as an "international" language among surrounding countries, like English nowadays. Take the Japanese Language for example. In ancient times, the Japanese had their own language, but they didn't have a writing system. Of course, China was ...


8

As Fivesheep pointed out, “四海” means "the whole world". The word "四海一家" means "the whole world is one family". It is used to expressed that "we are family. we shall respect each other. we shall unite", something like this, to convey the politeness from the overseas Chinese people to the local people(in your case, the Australian people). I believe this word ...


5

If, 當 = should / must 自警 = self-discipline What do you think their grammatical roles are?


5

The following is an excerpt from wikipedia, Classical Chinese Grammar: Grammar Further information: Classical Chinese lexicon Classical Chinese is distinguished from written vernacular Chinese in its style, which appears extremely concise and compact to modern Chinese speakers, and to some extent in the use of different lexical items (...


5

“可以荐嘉客,奈何阻重深”。这句在说,这个水果是很给朋友们的一件很好的礼品,但无奈路途遥远,不方便。隐含着诗人当前所处的位置远离曾经工作和生活的地方而表现出一种悲伤的心情。“阻重深”,表示路途险阻,“重” chong 一般用在强制“很多的”的情况下,表示有很多的东西(通常都用在表示有困难)包围着我们,在这里强调很困难,比如“需要克服重重险阻,被围困的军队需要突破重重包围圈”。“奈何”表示口语中都是用“无奈”,表示没有办法或很难解决问题。 另外,在诗词和歌曲中,我们经常把一些并列式的词汇颠倒过来,比如“运命”平时都写成“命运”。


4

四海如家 doesn't sound like an idiom. I think 四海为家 is what you are talking about. In ancient china, people didn't have the idea of oceans named Pacific, Indian... They tended to believe china was surrounded by 4 seas, 东海, 南海, 西海, 北海(if you know the chinese myths you might have heard of 四海龙王). In the idiom, 四海 means anywhere, or the whole world (Ancient chinese ...


4

Your understanding for 不了 and 了之, respectively, are accurate. The key to your question is the relationship between the two parts. In classical Chinese, omission of conjunctions is a very common thing, which brings beauty and ambiguity at the same time. In most cases it's intentionally left blank for the reader to interpret. There is no single correct ...


3

The passage is punctuated slightly wrong, it should be 葵丘之會,諸侯束牲、載書而不歃血: At the assembly at Kuiqiu, the feudal lords bound the sacrifice and placed their written pledges on it, but did not make blood oaths (i.e. they did not kill animals as part of the ceremony of allegiance). The assembly at Kuiqiu marked the ascendance of Qi Huan gong 齊桓公, the first of ...


3

You must know that the character 豫 means being caution, being extremely careful; 兮 is modal particle, like 啊. So,the whole sentence means (他)犹豫小心,就如同冬天过河一样,不敢贸然下水似的. Being extremely caution so that he dare not cross the river in winter.


3

鼓 = (beat) Drum 吹 = blow (trumpet) "Beating the drum and blowing the trumpet around the person" Similar terms: 前后部鼓吹,两部鼓吹


3

One way is: 书面语 . See http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%B9%A6%E9%9D%A2%E8%AF%AD for more information


3

之 is a common way to say ‘him/her/it’ in classical Chinese. It’s usually in the object position, not the subject one though: 殺之 ‘kills him’; 由之 ‘from it’. The use like modern Chinese 的 is different. 其 is actually a possessive pronoun, as in 其妻 ‘his wife’. More generally, it substitutes for ‘noun + 之’. 彼 can be used as a third-person pronoun in ...


3

"重",应该读chóng 即阳平(2声) "江南有丹橘,经冬犹绿林。" 江南一带生长着一种奇异的丹橘,经历严冬橘林依然枝叶苍翠,郁郁青青。 "岂伊地气暖,自有岁寒心。" 难道这是因为那里地气和暖使然?原来是这种橘树自有凌寒傲霜的本性。 "可以荐嘉客,奈何阻重深。" 款待贵宾与亲朋,这丹橘作为上好的水果当之无愧,怎奈一路上山高水深,运送它交通不便。 "徒言树桃李,此木岂无阴?" 世人都喜欢栽种桃李,其实这丹橘的果实不但可以款待宾客,而且四季长青,终年绿荫葱茏,哪一点不如桃李呢? 本诗以橘喻人,诗人借赞颂丹橘,经冬犹绿,是因为有耐寒的本性来比喻自己也有贤人一样的高尚品质,但不被人识,只能抑郁不平。全诗平淡自然,语言温雅醇厚,设喻贴切,抒发胸臆圆转自如,...


3

Here 啁 is a phonetic loan for 嘲, 'to mock', as in 嘲笑, so the phrase 或啁之曰could be translated "Someone mocked him, saying..." Using one character for another because they are pronounced similarly is common in older works. You could compare it to the situation in earlier English works where the same word is often spelled different ways, even in the same ...


3

As read in reference from Wikipedia (文言文), classic Chinese (文言文) was the oral Chinese back to the 先秦 era (era before Qing Dynasty, i.e. before 221BC). Even as early as in Han Dynasty (汉朝, 202BC-220) to Tang Dynasty (唐朝, 618-907) period, the oral Chinese had already been shifting apart from classic Chinese (written) and the new Chinese (白话文) had already been ...


2

The wiki link you provided can explain this very well. For historic reasons, the Chinese writing system influenced almost all of East Asia. So many countries and nations used Chinese characters or borrowed a subset of Chinese characters. That's another story. If you want the answer to this question, you should check the History books. In short, countries ...


2

之 = third person pronoun (it/him/her) 以 = with or indicating an indirect object Verb 之以 Noun = VERB him with NOUN In context, 淫之以色,啗之以利,养之以味,娱之以乐 means (a very rough translation) "(sexually) seduce him with sexy (women), lure him with benefit, accustom him with delicious food and amuse him with (obscene) music". It is included in a strategy saying that ...


2

The structure is <贪[人之有]者> <残>. "贪 人之有 者" can be translated as "he who is lust for other people's possessions". But I am sorry I don't know the exact meaning of 残 here. Maybe it means "harm", "impair" or "to be bad".


2

Lord Pingyuan was a Zhao chancellor involved in the Warring states factions. When the state of Zhao was in trouble in 257 BCE, the capital Handan under siege by Qin troops, lord Pingyuan was sent to the state of Chu to ask for assistance . King Kaolie of Chu and lord Pingyuan then performed the custom of 歃血为盟, or symbolically smearing blood around the mouth ...


2

庸 means 酬谢 (reward) here. (10) 酬其功劳 [reward] (11) 又如:庸勋(酬劳有功的人) And, 6.酬其功劳。 《书·益稷》:“明庶以功,车服以庸。”  孔颖达疏:“赐车服以旌别其人功能事用。” 《左传·僖公二十四年》:“庸勳、亲亲、暱近、尊贤,德之大者也。” 《孟子·尽心上》:“杀之而不怨,利之而不庸,民日迁善而不知为之者。” So 利之而不庸 means benefit them (the civilians), and they won't reward (someone).


1

庸 means 需要 (need) here. (1) (会意。小篆字形。从用,从庚。“庚更”同音,表更换。先做某事,然后更换做别的事。本义:用;需要) (2) 同本义 [need;adopt] (4) 常与否定副词“无”、“勿”、“弗”连用 (5) 又如:无庸讳言;无庸细述;毋庸讳言; So 毋庸 means 无须/不必 (no need to).


1

The original meaning of 歃 is "to sip". It is most frequently seen in the phrase 歃血 which means "to smear one's mouth with blood or to sip some blood and take an oath (usually in the ritual to form an alliance)", it doesn't imply where the blood comes from. It can be blood from a sacrifice, a victim, those who take part in the oath, etc. You can just smear ...


1

或作譈懟,亦書作憞 means "also, it is identified to 譈 or 懟; and it can be written as 憞." They are all archaic words and no longer used today. Neither orally nor literally.


1

The sentence you quoted is actually explaining/supplementing the sentence "明夷于南狩,得其大首,不可疾貞。" which means (approximately) "to go south to for war, capturing/killing the bad leader, in a righteous manner". As a result, such "志" is considered "大得".


1

Regarding 狩, @倪阔乐 's answer is not correct. According to explaination from http://www.zdic.net/z/1e/js/72E9.htm , it means hunting in winter, and especially means burn woods to force animals run away indeed easy for hunting.


1

狩 is to hunt, and has nothing to with the season. The aspiration to hunt in the south brought success. Then we may ask why, and the answer is that the south is lighter in the winter than the north. So the season is indirectly the reason.


1

This is a hard question which even puzzles many advanced Chinese researchers, such as this piece of The Question of Authorship in Chuang Tzu http://140.122.100.145/ntnuj/j29/j29-10.pdf found here. Put simply, it may be a little too hard for Chinese writing beginner to pick it up something like Chuang Tzu, being hard not only for the text classical ...


1

To take one example, the Japanese language has two "strains," an indigenous strain, and a "Chinese" strain. The latter is written using "Kanji" (classical Hanzi), and if not identical to Chinese, is recognizable to Chinese speakers. Likewise, the Japanese use of Kanji is similar (although not identical) to the corresponding Hanzi. Thus, a Chinese person ...



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