Hot answers tagged loanwords
Wiki page of 牛排 gives a clue of its etymology, written by, 姚德懷, the current chairman of 香港中國語文學會 (The Chinese Language Society of Hong Kong Ltd.), a non-profit organization in Hong Kong. Here's a summary: According to 漢語大詞典, the word 牛排 has been cited in some novels in Qing Dynasty in the beginning of 20th century. Such as: ...
I'm not sure where you could get an accurate count for how many there are. Considering that loanwords have been coming into Chinese for thousands of years, it definitely won't be a trivial task. There is certainly quite a few, however, not all of which is current/widespread/universal. I'll list some here, and edit more in if I think of any later: Angel: ...
When I lived in Guangzhou I was told the expression came from Hong Kong and stood for "Algebraic Average". That also doesn't sound like something a native English speaker would come up with, however I don't think that's a reason to discount it (or even the other suggestions) if it came from Hong Kong where non-native English speakers come up with all sorts ...
There're no such character set like Japanese katakana. kana is a kind of phonography, but in Chinese only select similarly pronounced Hanzi(汉字) to transliterate loanword. Such as 沙发(sofa). Of course there're some commonly used idiom for special English pronunciation.
Adding to the previous list: Bowling: 保龄球 bao ling qiu 滾木球 Buffet: 蒲飞 pu fei 自助餐 Calorie: 卡路里 ka lu li 热量单位 Cartoon: 卡通 ka tong 漫画 Motor: 摩托 mo tuo 电动机 Sundae: 新低 xin di 水果奶油,冰淇淋 T-Shirt: T-血 T-xue 短袖汗衫, 短袖圆领衫 Toast: 多士,吐司 duo shi, tu si 烤面包 Vitamin: 维他命 wei ta ming 维生素
Yes, there are preferred characters used in transliteration. But in Chinese the case is a little bit complicated than in Japanese. In Japanese, Katakana is part of the phonetic system of the language (although in written, those characters can be used with Kenji). In Chinese the phonetic system and the writing system are completely separated except in rare ...
During the May Fourth Movement, many terms were "imported" from Japan to enrich the Chinese vocabulary for translation of Western idea. Not to mention that China, Hong Kong and Taiwan have been different translation for the same English word, for example: Cheese = 芝士 (HK) / 起司 (Taiwan) / 奶酪 (China) Toast = 多士 (HK) / 吐司 (Taiwan) / 烤面包 (China) Hence, it is ...
From Chinese wikipedia: “雪茄”这中文译名为徐志摩所译，音译之余，也取其灰白如雪，因以为名。 (Loose!) Translation: The Chinese translation 雪茄 was created by Xu Zhimo. In addition to the similarity of the sounds, the name also comes from the fact that its ash is white like snow. My dictionary confirms that it is a loanword from English. If wikipedia is to believed, it probably ...
There should be a list somewhere, as I imagine some linguist would have done research about it. It would be very long though. I don't believe there is an official one. Some characters that are commonly used in transliterations, off the top of my head: 布, 斯, 爾, 尼, 拉, 克, 阿, 格, 雷, 卡, 達.
Pretty much what @songyuanyao said, though, you will find some words in the dictionary that are marked (or defined I guess I should say) as "used in transliteration" like:哌、吖、叭...etc etc
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