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12

I'm not sure where you could get an accurate count for how many there are. Considering that loanwords have been coming into Chinese for thousands of years, it definitely won't be a trivial task. There is certainly quite a few, however, not all of which is current/widespread/universal. I'll list some here, and edit more in if I think of any later: Angel: ...


11

Wiki page of 牛排 gives a clue of its etymology, written by, 姚德懷, the current chairman of 香港中國語文學會 (The Chinese Language Society of Hong Kong Ltd.), a non-profit organization in Hong Kong. Here's a summary: According to 漢語大詞典, the word 牛排 has been cited in some novels in Qing Dynasty in the beginning of 20th century. Such as: ...


8

if i have 10 apples , i give you 5 and keep the another 5 myself , it called "平均"; Here "picture 1" is called “均匀”, while picture 2 is called “不均匀”. [picture 1] [picture 2]


7

When I lived in Guangzhou I was told the expression came from Hong Kong and stood for "Algebraic Average". That also doesn't sound like something a native English speaker would come up with, however I don't think that's a reason to discount it (or even the other suggestions) if it came from Hong Kong where non-native English speakers come up with all sorts ...


6

From Chinese wikipedia: “雪茄”这中文译名为徐志摩所译,音译之余,也取其灰白如雪,因以为名。 (Loose!) Translation: The Chinese translation 雪茄 was created by Xu Zhimo. In addition to the similarity of the sounds, the name also comes from the fact that its ash is white like snow. My dictionary confirms that it is a loanword from English. If wikipedia is to believed, it probably ...


5

现在: Now A: 你现在在干什么?: What are you doing now? 正在: Currently B: 我正在做作业。: I am doing homework. 正在is this sentence can be translated to doing something at this particular moment, in English you just add ing at the end for currently doing something, but in Chinese you don't have this, so you use 正在 to express doing something now. 我正在做...becomes "I am ...


5

Adding to the previous list: Bowling: 保龄球 bao ling qiu 滾木球 Buffet: 蒲飞 pu fei 自助餐 Calorie: 卡路里 ka lu li 热量单位 Cartoon: 卡通 ka tong 漫画 Motor: 摩托 mo tuo 电动机 Sundae: 新低 xin di 水果奶油,冰淇淋 T-Shirt: T-血 T-xue 短袖汗衫, 短袖圆领衫 Toast: 多士,吐司 duo shi, tu si 烤面包 Vitamin: 维他命 wei ta ming 维生素


5

There're no such character set like Japanese katakana. kana is a kind of phonography, but in Chinese only select similarly pronounced Hanzi(汉字) to transliterate loanword. Such as 沙发(sofa). Of course there're some commonly used idiom for special English pronunciation.


5

黑 is the verb you are looking for. 被黑了 is the common phrase form of "been hacked". If you feel 黑 is too ambiguous you can add an object behind it to turn it into a VO (verb object) phrase: 黑电脑, etc. Alternatively Oxford suggests: 5 COMPUTING, COLLOQUIAL 窃取 to hack secret data from computers 从计算机里窃取机密资料 Personally I would just go with ...


4

Yes, there are preferred characters used in transliteration. But in Chinese the case is a little bit complicated than in Japanese. In Japanese, Katakana is part of the phonetic system of the language (although in written, those characters can be used with Kenji). In Chinese the phonetic system and the writing system are completely separated except in rare ...


4

Well, I am a Chinese, so I think I can have a try. "顺", means let it be, or just like the song from the movie Froze, let it go. "其", means itself. "自然", means what it means to be. So, put it together, it means, just let it be what it should be, do not intervene. It usually used to comfort someone who just failed something.


4

互联网 and 因特网 may be different things - "internet" vs "Internet". Coming up with loanwords isn't a standardised practice; in the beginning you'll have separate groups coming up with different words, but over time the need to communicate will encourage people to start using the same one. Take LASER for example; since it was invented in the US, there were many ...


4

For different translations: cement: 水门汀、水泥 Internet: 因特网、互联网 vitamin: 维生素、维他命 Sacramento: 沙加缅度、三个馒头 :P Bourgeoisie: 布尔乔亚、资产阶级 From different languages, actually, there are many, if you count Japanese and Cantonese. Florence: 翡冷翠、佛罗伦萨 (Italian, English) metaphysics:形而上学(日)、玄学(中) evolution: 进化(日)、天演(中) philosophy: 哲学(日)、理学(中) bus: 巴士(粤)、公共汽车(汉) ...


4

A thread worth reviving. The word cigar came into English (and most other European languages) from Spanish. I don't really think it's possible to say which one Chinese got it from, based just on phonetics. Carol Benedict's book on tobacco in China, Golden-Silk Smoke, notes that "Filipino tobacco leaf and hand-rolled tobacco products began to flow to ...


3

Mostly wei can be used when you answer the phone , while it's too oralize to use over text. But someti mes you can see it like this: 他正在打电话:“喂?” 他不耐烦的说道:“喂,哪位?” I prefer it is better to use 你好 or 您好 as a alternative word. (Actually I use 您好 cause It's polite to when you talking or writing.) If you want to write a letter or email , adding a adj. word ...


3

I don't agree that "Mainland Mandarin" is a stress-timed language. Where did you get the "general agreement"? In addition, I think that Mandarin is Mandarin. The difference between "Mainland Mandarin" and "Taiwan Mandarin" is smaller than British English and US English. Back to your question. Even the words/names are translated from other stress-timed ...


3

拜拜 is not casualness and/or childishness,it is a more friendly way to express goodbye ,and majority use between people who have good relation,or see somebody for the first time and build a friendship each other. So does it in Taiwan I think:)


2

During the May Fourth Movement, many terms were "imported" from Japan to enrich the Chinese vocabulary for translation of Western idea. Not to mention that China, Hong Kong and Taiwan have been different translation for the same English word, for example: Cheese = 芝士 (HK) / 起司 (Taiwan) / 奶酪 (China) Toast = 多士 (HK) / 吐司 (Taiwan) / 烤面包 (China) Hence, it is ...


2

Wikipedia has this to say: 「AA」是「Arithmetic Average」的縮寫。意思是「算術平均」。 「AA」是「All Average」的縮寫。意思是「全部平均分擔」。 「AA」是英文「Acting Appointment」的縮寫。 There is no citation or whatsoever, so these could all be wrong... 百度 also has something to say. Despite the total lack of structure, there is an interesting excerpt from the article: Chamber's English ...


2

拜拜 is not considered childish, but is more casual than other forms of good-bye. It can be use on children / friends / even seniors, but should not be use for Clients / business partner / etc.


2

Usually we use 《辞海》 to look up all the meanings of a character. I'm not sure if you have it at hand. However I searched the online resources and found a website could meet your requirement, http://www.zdic.net Good luck!


2

There are three ways to translate a loanword: by its meaning, by its pronunciation or by both. Taking your example 互联网 vs 因特网, 互联网 is by its meaning (inter/inter-connected=互/互联, net=网); 因特网 is by both of its pronunciation and meaning (in=因, ter=特, net (by meaning)=网 My feeling is that when in the early stage of introduction of a loanword, it's more likely ...


2

Zombie thread! In Wu dialect (in Zhejiang), this is pronounced as an almost exact transliteration of 'cigar' (like pinyin xiega, but with a short vowel on the first syllable). Several other transcriptions are also from Wu, coming through the Shanghai foreign port, such as jacket.


2

I will try to put my two cents in, from a more psychological perspective. Chinese is largely a semantics-based writing system. Phonetically transcribed loan words are relatively easy to coin, but difficult to comprehend, unless the reader also understands the language from which the words come. When a new concept is introduced into the language, it's ...


2

I guess you should avoid 伊妹儿 (that almost looks like a girls' name or person name). 电子邮件 is the preferred and widely used term. If you need a verb to express 'to send an e-mail', use 发 with 电子邮件: E.g. 请给我发个电子邮件。 Please send me an e-mail.


1

One reason is that Chinese is more diversified than Japanese in terms of topolects and dialects. 碧池, 沙发, 雷达 and so on may not be pronounced the intended way in other tongues than Mandarin, and so the terms become meaningless. Another reason would be linguistic pride. Iceland is another country that takes great care to form their own words rather than using ...


1

I can only think of names, if that's acceptable. Biblical names can have different transliterations/renderings in Chinese, perhaps because Christianity was introduced by different language speakers to China, so there are a few names that have multiple transliterations. 摩西 (Protestant) - 梅瑟 (Catholic) - Moses. UPDATE: 桑拿 - 三温暖 (TW) - Sauna, both are ...


1

古代汉语 is everything that is not 现代汉语. More precisely, we have 上古汉语 (Old Chinese: Oracle bones, Warring states, Qin; Classical Chinese: Spring and autumn, Han), 中古汉语 (Middle Chinese: Tang, Song) and 近代汉语 (mostly late Qing). 博士 was coined in the Warring states period, according to zdic.net. Disyllabic words have always existed, although the ideal used to be ...


1

A hilarious passage. My edition says 漢巴德牛排 (no comma), if that's correct it's some kind of beefsteak; in the wine list there's a 巴德, could be related, beef steak with a wine based sauce? The article suggests port for 巴德, why not bordeaux? All guesses on my part. Some of the other dishes also look mangled: 澳洲翠鳥雞 the Australian kingfisher chicken surely ...


1

Here's an example: Case 1: The average age of gamers is 22 游戏玩家的平均年龄是22 You cannot use 均匀 here but only 平均 Case 2: This painting's color is evenly distributed 这幅画的颜色分布均匀 You cannot use 平均 here but only 均匀 Conclusion: I will say "average" is one of the result / statistic of a distribution, where "evenly distributed" is one of the many ways to ...



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