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1

Um... IMO, as a native speaker, I think the closest definition to 等 in the previous sentence in English might be "and so on". It is exactly the second case which you mentioned previously: used to end a list of objects. Although there isn't an explicit list here, this sentence is still correct because it's a common practice in China to use 等 to end up a ...


6

This answer belongs to Stan. Since he is not able to post, I'll write it up for him. In the phrase 产业结构优化等优势, the word 等 indicates that 产业结构优化 is just one of several 优势. The word 等 does not require several items to be listed before you use it; instead, it can illustrate one of a range of possibilities. Translating this into English, I might try using a ...


1

更生 means on its own to revitalize, or to revive. In this context, 自力更生 idiomatically means "revitalize through our own efforts". An example of its usage is in the communist saying "独立自主、自力更生". iCiba translates this as "build socialism independently and with the initiative in our own hands and through self-reliance" (which I find awkward, but it gets the ...


2

1 - 可以明确的(matter) - (the matter) that one can see clear is... 2 - 我(是)九月份进的 (it's part of a 是...的 structure) - I entered on September...


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2nd sentence: If I am to use English grammatical terms to explain this, "我九月份进的" would be a restrictive relative clause that describes "这家公司" . 我九月份进的这家公司,老板说... The company that I entered in September; the boss said that ... Better still: The boss of the company that I entered in September said that ... 1st sentence: 的 also connects a relative clause ...


1

What is certain is that apprentice and company is not a contract of employment... 的 functions as the second 'is' above, such that one can omit the object "fact" "What is certain is (the fact that) apprentice and company is not a contract of employment...". This sentence is a bit colloquial and hence the grammar here may appear strange. (About) this ...


0

I feel this sentence is weirdly constructed and sounds very strange, but the 的 is used like the English word "what". So, 可以明确的 is like: what is certain is that There is an implied 是 in the second sentence.



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