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Yes. It seems you understand the first sentence pretty well. Regarding the second sentence, I think you're confusing 持续 and 足以. 足以 is the word that means "enough". 这足以持续到周末 = This is enough to last until the weekend. The key here is that 持续 indicates a persistence, something that continues on.
一 in this construction has the meaning of ”once”. Once the business got started it was very successful, but later on we encountered difficulties. Another example: 一看他的样子就知道他是个骗子。
Here, 一 should not be parsed by itself, but instead put together with 开始 to form the phrase 一开始, which means "at the beginning" or "initially". So the correct translation would be: 事情一开始进展得很顺利，但后来我们遇到了困难 At the beginning, everything was going smoothly, but later we encountered difficulties. Here are some more examples: 一开始，我不喜欢她。后来，我爱上了她。 At the ...
I've searched some sentences on Baidu, they all mean Chinese nationals in the context, i.e. localization. 西门子高管出现首张中国面孔 西门子中国没有职位上的‘天花板’,从CEO,到业务总裁,越来越多的中国面孔跻身西门子高管团队,我的责任就是让有能力有经验的本土化员工迅速成长起来,担纲西门子中国以至全球的重任。 BTW: I can't find your sentence exactly on Baidu, but I found this, which used the word 本土 for localization. ...
Your sentence is fine. And also could use 负担得起 for can afford.
Maybe there is a subtle difference between 一 in 一开始 and 'once'. I feel that 一 emphasizes more about what is happening at that moment.
(I am a native Chinese speaker. And I have been speaking English for working purpose several years.) In my opinion, 2 is a typical Enginese (English-styled Chinese). Allow me to invent this non-existing word. I think the English version should look like this: 这足以持续到周末 -> This can last until the weekend. I think it is over translation to put enough in ...
There is an article on 属地原则 at 互动百科. It seems to be some variation of the territoriality principle, but that's public international law, and I've found several places where it's used to talk about regional versus national authority. Hard to say how to translate if Chinese has adapted a word to its own purposes. (Dang! Second paragraph got chopped off, added ...
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