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About the "乔" part of "George[dʒɔ:dʒ]", you can find some material in the 译音表(the Form of Ttransliteration). Besides, "奇" should be instead of "治" following the form. However, "约定俗成(the convention)" is one of the important rules of 《英文人名翻译准则》. Everybody often use "乔治" refer to "George", so that "乔治" is agreed upon gradually. Anyway, I don't know why did ...
Some says that "乔治" is very close to George in Shanghainese (上海話) since Shanghai was the big harbor allows international trades in 17th century. Lots of phrases are created/translated at that time. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Pidgin_English
How to address a person properly depends on a lot factors, but as the rule of thumb, Chinese people like to use 2 characters to address a person. The reason is that, I guess - 1) using 1 character from the given name sounds intimate (like between lovers), 2) using the person's 1-character surname sound foreign. In English, if a person's surname is Wang, ...
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