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12

的 in its function as a particle is attested in the 四大名著 Four Great Classical Novels, which are written in a vernacular Mandarin-type language, dating from the Ming dynasty. The particle use of 的 is also attested from the Yuan dynasty, when it seems it was adopted for the grammatical particle of the emerging new literary language. Its earliest attestation is ...


9

I think Chinese textbooks should start their 了 sections with this: 了 is not about time. 了 is not about tense. Goto 1. You are only concerned with 了 as an the aspect marker, aka completed action 了, or perfect aspect 了, so: "昨天去商店" and "昨天去了商店" are both valid verb phrases. The second one explicitly states that the action was completed, whereas the first ...


9

When you want to express possessive relations concerning family members or relatives, you don't need 的. 我妈妈,你爸爸,她男朋友,我们家老大, etc. I have done some searches with different expressions with and without 的, and I see that this rule is not applied consistently. EDIT: There are ambiguous cases, e.g. 你们孩子 could mean "You children" or "Your children" (with ...


8

之 is the wenyan equivalent of Mandarin 的. Here are some examples from a Classical Chinese textbook: 鄰人之父 > 鄰居的老人 ‘an old man who lived next door’ 衛國之法 > 衛國的法律 ‘the laws of Wei’ 仁義 之 道 > 仁義的 道理 ‘the doctrine of benevolence and righteousness’ Because parts of speech in wenyan are quite flexible, using 之 to link two ...


8

Yes 吧 is used at the end of a question when you already assume the statement to be true. 吧 (modal particle indicating suggestion or surmise) Whereas had you ended the question with ma (t: 嗎, s: 吗) then it is just a question, no assumption behind it, you are asking because you honestly have no clue. References: http://cdict.net/?q=吧,嗎 As for the ...


7

Generally speaking, 了 following a verb indicates completion, while 了 at the end of a sentence or phrase indicates a change in state (and sometimes other things, 了 is very complicated). A common use of this final 了 is to draw the attention of the listener to the fact that something is now the case (that wasn't previously). In this case 我饿了 is saying: "I'm ...


7

了 and 到/著(着) (zháo) serve different functions in sentences. 了 used after verbs implies a sense of "stopped, finished,completed, or done" on the action. 到 and 著(着) used after verbs indicate the result of the action. 找(不/得)着, 找(不/得)到 够(不/得)着, 够(不/得)到 吃(不/得)着, 吃(不/得)到 I can't really tell the difference between 到 and 著(着), but it seems to me ...


6

Just to expand on Hugh’s answer a bit. To understand what’s wrong with ‘我作天去商店.’ standing alone, we could translate it as ‘Yesterday I was going to the shop.’ Speaking English, if you said this and just stopped, the listener would think, well so what? There are some verbs which are not used with 了 where a time phrase is enough to show past action. For ...


6

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_exclamative_particles But use of exclamative particles is highly informal, and it is advised that they not be used in formal documents or academic papers, unless it is specifically required to do so (such as the case of narrative telling). Some common examples are shown below. 了 le modal particle intensifying ...


6

The omission of 的 is not limited to family relationships. Consider *我車壞了。 我的車壞了。 我們車壞了。 我們的車壞了。 我車子壞了。 我的車子壞了。 我們車子壞了。 我們的車子壞了。 In my opinion, (1) sounds extremely ungrammatical, (3) sounds slightly contrived but otherwise acceptable, and the others are perfectly grammatical. There are also fixed expressions like 我國 (my country; compare 'the US navy' ...


5

When 掉 is used as a verb complement (not a verb), it indicates that something disappears, is removed, is disposed of, etc. as the result of an action. Not really "falling" or "missing". Some examples: 擦不掉:Something can't be removed or got rid of by rubbing or wiping. Maybe it's a stain on your shoes, and you're trying to rub it off with a cloth, but it can'...


5

In a phrase with this construct: 可/太/最 + [adjective/adverb/stative verb] + 了 了 serves as a modal article (rather than tense particle) to express emphasis and is optional. Reference: http://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CDMD-10475-1012379314.htm


5

As others have pointed out, 呢 is a sentence-final particle that nowadays mostly has an interrogative function, namely to form a question regarding a topic that has already been brought up. The normal interrogative particle is 吗, as in 你是中国人吗? Or more rhetorically using 吧: 你是中国人吧? But if you first introduce your own nationality, the question would instead ...


5

哦 (Ò), I see! 哦 (O), is that really so? 喔 (Ō), I see! 诶 (唉, Āi), good heavens! 啊 (Á), you are kidding me, right? 啊 (Ǎ), is that really so? 啊 (À), OK.


4

Usage of 了 (le): A. auxiliary word (助词) A.1 used after verb or adj to indicate completion. This usage carries the same sense of "Perfect Tenses" in English. Example: 我已经问了老王 / 人老了,身体差了 / 头发白了 / 这双鞋太小了 / 他打开了窗子 A.2 used at the end of a sentence, or in the middle of sentence but right before a pause(usually a comma), to indicate current situation ...


4

"verb + 了" is used to emphasize the completion of the action. So "认识到了" means "I have realized".


4

Good question, but it's hard to deal with all the issues your examples raise in just one answer: the complexity of this thing is really staggering. One important thing I think you are missing is that there are TWO kinds of le. This is a frequently made point; one place you can read more about this is Li and Thompson's book, Mandarin Chinese: A Functional ...


3

Although they may have similar meaning nowadays, I would say they didn't come from the same word. By comparing 篆書(~221 B.C.), they are totally different. And 的 seems to be a pretty new word because I couldn't found it in bone script. Not only the appeal but the meaning is also different. The old 之, graphically means one foot on the ground, and the ...


3

This is more of an aesthetic / rhythmic issue than a grammatical one. Technically you can keep adding 的 to make a chain as long as you like, but it won't be "nice". It's like saying "that" repeatedly in English, e.g. "the man that ate a dog that ate a fly that watched a cat that liked to browse stack exchange." Grammatically valid but not natural. The ...


3

了 has a lot ussages, one of which is to indicate the completion of an action or of a status change. Examples (indicating the completion of an action): 作业写完了 话说完了 他来了 他结婚了 演出结束了 我们毕业了 etc. Examples (indicating the completion of a status change): 天亮了 (status of sky changing from dark to bright is completed) 头发白了 (status of hair chaning from ...


3

It means a status that has just arrived and this status will last. 我饿了, 我懂了, 我知道了。 Example 1: 妈妈:"你要好好读书!" 儿子:"我知道!" Mom:" You have to study hard!" Son:" I knew it!( I already knew it, stop nagging!)" Example 2: 妈妈:"你要好好读书!" 儿子:"我知道了" Mom:" You have to study hard!" Son:" I get it.( I know it now and I'll try .)"


3

I am a native speaker, but keep in mind that some native speakers suck at grammar. 呢 just adds to the tone and doesn't really mean much, but if left out in some sentences, the sentences would not sound natural. I guess you're right about the “以為‧‧‧呢” sentence pattern. 了 here indicates an action done, like the past participle tense. 不走了 means "(decided) ...


3

之 is a common way to say ‘him/her/it’ in classical Chinese. It’s usually in the object position, not the subject one though: 殺之 ‘kills him’; 由之 ‘from it’. The use like modern Chinese 的 is different. 其 is actually a possessive pronoun, as in 其妻 ‘his wife’. More generally, it substitutes for ‘noun + 之’. 彼 can be used as a third-person pronoun in ...


3

I can't use 地 after the adjective if the adjective is monosyllabic This is not a grammatical rule. This is an idiomatic rule and mostly for prosody concerns. All the following expressions are grammatically correct. Only some sounds more natural than the others: 他慢地走 <- sounds unnatural 他很慢地走 <- sounds fine but not idiomatic 他慢慢地走 <- sounds ...


3

Alexander's answer, as it currently stands, is slightly at odds with my thoughts on the matter and also doesn't comment on some thoughts I have on the grammar, so I will write an answer. For the most part, when your sentences are grammatically correct, you have the right interpretation. However, you seem to missing some grammar / usage information. Firstly, ...


2

I am Chinese. I can feel some mistakes in the previous answers Sentence-final particles can be very hard to English speakers, because they never exist in English. 我们去吃饭吧 - Normal suggestion 我们去吃饭啦 - To inform(the listener is excluded. May be past aspect), with some little sense of happiness. Equivalent to 了啊 我们去吃饭喽 - More happiness, even some exciting, ...


2

“了” is a special character usually meaning "finished" or "something happen in the future", we can summarize these points: 1) For a verb that can be persistant, “了” means “begin to do something immediately on spoken” (usually SVO+了): 妈妈,我*做功课了*;做完功课后我出去散步。(Mon, I'll start homeworking, then I'll walk outside). However, if SV了+O(Subject+Verb+了+Object),mostly ...


2

Since your difficulty relates more to the differences between 着(zháo) and 到(dào), I will just concentrate on these two in cases where they are used as a complement after a verb to indicate that a goal has been attained or that there is a result. Although both 着 and 到 are used for similar purposes, there are differences, and often, one is preferred over the ...


2

All of your examples are correct. In my opinion, "Mom 's white dog 妈妈的白狗" is the most appropriate. Whether the sentence needs to use "色的" depend on the context. For example: "不管白猫黑猫,能抓到老鼠就是好猫" translate to English "Whatever white cat or black cat, it is a good cat only if the cat can catch a mouse." "我刚才在街上看到一个红头发的人" translate to English "I saw a guy ...


2

The omitting of 的 follows a loose rule of minimal reappearance in the context you gave. The first two are the correct expression in Chinese. The latter two, though with correct grammar, would never make to any Chinese conversation, oral or literal. Also, another general rule here is that the closer the relationship, the bigger probability the omitting. Note ...



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