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12

的 in its function as a particle is attested in the 四大名著 Four Great Classical Novels, which are written in a vernacular Mandarin-type language, dating from the Ming dynasty. The particle use of 的 is also attested from the Yuan dynasty, when it seems it was adopted for the grammatical particle of the emerging new literary language. Its earliest attestation is ...


8

I think Chinese textbooks should start their 了 sections with this: 了 is not about time. 了 is not about tense. Goto 1. You are only concerned with 了 as an the aspect marker, aka completed action 了, or perfect aspect 了, so: "昨天去商店" and "昨天去了商店" are both valid verb phrases. The second one explicitly states that the action was completed, whereas the first ...


7

Generally speaking, 了 following a verb indicates completion, while 了 at the end of a sentence or phrase indicates a change in state (and sometimes other things, 了 is very complicated). A common use of this final 了 is to draw the attention of the listener to the fact that something is now the case (that wasn't previously). In this case 我饿了 is saying: "I'm ...


6

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_exclamative_particles But use of exclamative particles is highly informal, and it is advised that they not be used in formal documents or academic papers, unless it is specifically required to do so (such as the case of narrative telling). Some common examples are shown below. 了 le modal particle intensifying ...


6

之 is the wenyan equivalent of Mandarin 的. Here are some examples from a Classical Chinese textbook: 鄰人之父 > 鄰居的老人 ‘an old man who lived next door’ 衛國之法 > 衛國的法律 ‘the laws of Wei’ 仁義 之 道 > 仁義的 道理 ‘the doctrine of benevolence and righteousness’ Because parts of speech in wenyan are quite flexible, using 之 to link two ...


5

Just to expand on Hugh’s answer a bit. To understand what’s wrong with ‘我作天去商店.’ standing alone, we could translate it as ‘Yesterday I was going to the shop.’ Speaking English, if you said this and just stopped, the listener would think, well so what? There are some verbs which are not used with 了 where a time phrase is enough to show past action. For ...


5

When 掉 is used as a verb complement (not a verb), it indicates that something disappears, is removed, is disposed of, etc. as the result of an action. Not really "falling" or "missing". Some examples: 擦不掉:Something can't be removed or got rid of by rubbing or wiping. Maybe it's a stain on your shoes, and you're trying to rub it off with a cloth, but it ...


5

In a phrase with this construct: 可/太/最 + [adjective/adverb/stative verb] + 了 了 serves as a modal article (rather than tense particle) to express emphasis and is optional. Reference: http://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CDMD-10475-1012379314.htm


4

Usage of 了 (le): A. auxiliary word (助词) A.1 used after verb or adj to indicate completion. This usage carries the same sense of "Perfect Tenses" in English. Example: 我已经问了老王 / 人老了,身体差了 / 头发白了 / 这双鞋太小了 / 他打开了窗子 A.2 used at the end of a sentence, or in the middle of sentence but right before a pause(usually a comma), to indicate current situation ...


3

Although they may have similar meaning nowadays, I would say they didn't come from the same word. By comparing 篆書(~221 B.C.), they are totally different. And 的 seems to be a pretty new word because I couldn't found it in bone script. Not only the appeal but the meaning is also different. The old 之, graphically means one foot on the ground, and the ...


3

This is more of an aesthetic / rhythmic issue than a grammatical one. Technically you can keep adding 的 to make a chain as long as you like, but it won't be "nice". It's like saying "that" repeatedly in English, e.g. "the man that ate a dog that ate a fly that watched a cat that liked to browse stack exchange." Grammatically valid but not natural. The ...


3

了 has a lot ussages, one of which is to indicate the completion of an action or of a status change. Examples (indicating the completion of an action): 作业写完了 话说完了 他来了 他结婚了 演出结束了 我们毕业了 etc. Examples (indicating the completion of a status change): 天亮了 (status of sky changing from dark to bright is completed) 头发白了 (status of hair chaning from ...


3

It means a status that has just arrived and this status will last. 我饿了, 我懂了, 我知道了。 Example 1: 妈妈:"你要好好读书!" 儿子:"我知道!" Mom:" You have to study hard!" Son:" I knew it!( I already knew it, stop nagging!)" Example 2: 妈妈:"你要好好读书!" 儿子:"我知道了" Mom:" You have to study hard!" Son:" I get it.( I know it now and I'll try .)"


2

“了” is a special character usually meaning "finished" or "something happen in the future", we can summarize these points: 1) For a verb that can be persistant, “了” means “begin to do something immediately on spoken” (usually SVO+了): 妈妈,我*做功课了*;做完功课后我出去散步。(Mon, I'll start homeworking, then I'll walk outside). However, if SV了+O(Subject+Verb+了+Object),mostly ...


2

All of your examples are correct. In my opinion, "Mom 's white dog 妈妈的白狗" is the most appropriate. Whether the sentence needs to use "色的" depend on the context. For example: "不管白猫黑猫,能抓到老鼠就是好猫" translate to English "Whatever white cat or black cat, it is a good cat only if the cat can catch a mouse." "我刚才在街上看到一个红头发的人" translate to English "I saw a guy ...


2

The minor difference between "了" and "过". Q: Where did you go last year? (去年你去哪了?) A: 我去年去了中国。 Q: have you been China before? (你去过中国么?) A: 我(去年)去过中国。


2

Yes,两个都可以。比如:去了北京与去过北京大体意思是一致的。但是,“去了北京”有已经回来与没有回来两种可能,而去过北京则结果只有一个,那就是现在已经不在北京了!谨记:过的语句后可以加了字,反之不可以!! Edit (Translation): Yes, both are possible. For example, 去了 Beijing and 去过 have roughly the same meaning. But, 去了 Beijing has two possible meanings; went and already came back, or went and still hasn't returned. However, 去过 Beijing only has one, you have ...


2

As others have pointed out, 呢 is a sentence-final particle that nowadays mostly has an interrogative function, namely to form a question regarding a topic that has already been brought up. The normal interrogative particle is 吗, as in 你是中国人吗? Or more rhetorically using 吧: 你是中国人吧? But if you first introduce your own nationality, the question would instead ...


1

Basically, this word has no meaning. Chinese usually use this at the very end of a interrogative sentence. It won't affect the meaning of the sentence if you ignore this word. e.g. '我该不该去那里?' is equal to '我该不该去那里呢?' (Should I go there or not?) Others like: 啊 呀 么


1

Of course the later is possible, it means "I had been to China last year." the position of adverbs of time is not important, you can express the same meaning like this: 去年我去过中国. 中国我去过, 去年. 我去过中国, 去年.


1

My: 我、我的 mom: 媽、媽媽 's: 的 white: 白、白色、白的、白色的 dog: 狗、狗狗 Remember a common rule: "Don't use 2 more 的 in one sentence." So following all are correct sentences: Mom 's white dog 媽媽的白狗。 媽媽的白色狗。 My mom's white dog 我媽的白狗。 我媽的白色狗。 我媽媽的白狗。 我媽媽的白色狗。 A special word you can't choose in this sentence. 媽的 媽的 is a dirty word.(You can't say "媽的白狗")


1

Is it grammatically incorrect to say ”我昨天去商店“? It is grammatically correct. Since the sentence already indicate past tense you don't have to use it. In basic Chinese learning material it is common to avoid using le 了 to keep it simple. See the examples at http://www.dictall.com/indu57/08/5708187C16D.htm (maybe you can find some in one of your learning ...


1

The omitting of 的 follows a loose rule of minimal reappearance in the context you gave. The first two are the correct expression in Chinese. The latter two, though with correct grammar, would never make to any Chinese conversation, oral or literal. Also, another general rule here is that the closer the relationship, the bigger probability the omitting. Note ...


1

1.When "了" put the end of a sentence, that means something changed/be changing/be going to change. It can be used in the past, present and future. But usually there is "就" in the future tense. "就" is similar to "will". for example: "昨天,我去学校了。" refers to "I went to school yesterday." "现在,我去学校了。" refers to "I am going to school now." "明天,我就去学校了。" refers to ...


1

饿 is a verb meaning the state from full to hunger, i.e. become hungry. 我饿了 literal meaning: I have become hungry already.


1

这样听起来比较生硬,句子的重心被放在了“已经“上。一般我们只对比较亲密的人说“我饿”,就像小孩子呼唤大人一般,所以只在家庭、朋友、恋人之间使用。并且在社会心理的意义上,相当于承认了自己是被照顾的那一方。如果是在工作场合,我们一般不会说“我饿”来表示“我并不是很饿”。 Because by adding “了”, the emphasis is put on the existence of the state of "hunger" and the sentence seems more rigid. Generally, we only say 我饿 to people with close relationship, like a baby calling its parents. As a ...


1

掉 and 了 can be used as verb or adverb. 掉 (verb) means drop or fall. 了 (verb) [pronounced as liao] means finish or understand, but it is rarely used in speaking. 掉 (adverb) is used to show the result of the verb, eg. 吃掉 (show result, ate it). 了 (adverb) [pronounced as le] means already. In grammar of English Language can be interpreted as perfect tense. ...


1

I know that in Japanese there are also sentence ending particles that are both gender-specific and can change the tone of the expression. So it certainly isn't random, and you need to be careful when you use which so the correct meaning is conveyed. From what I hear and am familiar with (from a Taiwanese perspective): 我们去吃饭吧 - shall we/why don't we go eat ...


1

The two sentences in your example are the same. Native speakers usually use the latter, but if you use the former sentence no one will notice. I'm not quite sure what a modal particle is so I will write some sentences ending in 了.Unlike the example, these 了 can't be omitted. 她八岁了。 She's eight years old now. 我们快要到家了。 We're almost home. 夏天快到了。 Summer is ...



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