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A quick browse on Google Scholar yields a few results. Macau Cantonese appears to be intermediate between Zhongshan Cantonese and Hong Kong Cantonese. There is only one rising tone derived from Middle Chinese 上聲, which is pronounced closer to the lower one of Guangzhou and Hong Kong Cantonese. This brings it closer to Zhongshan Cantonese. However, this ...


Modern Chinese has underwent many pronunciation changes since characters were first invented and phonetic components often reflect words as they were pronounced in Old Chinese rather than modern Chinese. The pronunciations of 的 and 勺 were much more similar in Old Chinese. This link explains: 的 and 勺 had roughly similar pronunciations in Old Chinese; ...


Most native Chinese will resort "儿" sound to Beijing dialect. The tail sound "儿" didn't add any additional meaning to the meaning in most cases. With or without a "儿" only differs in the slight Emotion variations towards the listeners, which is quite subjective.


It is different from place to place, and there is no standard. Normally, it won't appear in official announcements, laws, scientific publications, etc. But it is widely used in daily life. For native Chinese, when we move from one place to another, even if it is nearer, we still need time to get use to it, at the same time when we get use to the local ...

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