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12

I took the CEDICT file and wrote a script on it. The file has 113k dictionary entries, so it covers a very large portion of the Chinese vocabulary. There are 1522 different pinyin syllables in CEDICT, when you distinguish tone numbers (like, ma1, ma2, ma3, ma4, ma). If you do not care about tone numbers, you'll get 413 syllables (ma, mo, mi, etc.) Here's ...


11

As Maroon points out in a comment, you have to say which dialect you are asking about. This answer is for Standard Chinese, aka Mandarin. It also depends on what sort of stuff you include. Counting the distinct lines in the syllable index of the Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, I get 420 "lines" but this includes some very marginal stuff such as tei, ...


7

A quick browse on Google Scholar yields a few results. Macau Cantonese appears to be intermediate between Zhongshan Cantonese and Hong Kong Cantonese. There is only one rising tone derived from Middle Chinese 上聲, which is pronounced closer to the lower one of Guangzhou and Hong Kong Cantonese. This brings it closer to Zhongshan Cantonese. However, this ...


7

Modern Chinese has underwent many pronunciation changes since characters were first invented and phonetic components often reflect words as they were pronounced in Old Chinese rather than modern Chinese. The pronunciations of 的 and 勺 were much more similar in Old Chinese. This link explains: 的 and 勺 had roughly similar pronunciations in Old Chinese; ...


6

The answer to this could well depend on the specific language meant by "Chinese". For instance, Cantonese supposedly has over 600, which isn't surprising because of larger variation of vowels and the presence of more ending consonants. (I am unsure as to whether this figure takes tones into account.) I will assume that this is about 普通话, since that seems to ...


2

Most native Chinese will resort "儿" sound to Beijing dialect. The tail sound "儿" didn't add any additional meaning to the meaning in most cases. With or without a "儿" only differs in the slight Emotion variations towards the listeners, which is quite subjective.


2

Edit: Sorry that I misunderstood the question. I thought Maroon was talking about non-native Cantonese speakers. Most native Mandarin speakers have trouble handling the rising (上聲) and departing tones (去聲) in Cantonese. It is because Cantonese further differentiates them into high-rising (陰上), low-rising (陽上), high-level (陰去) and low-level (陽去). ...


1

Actually, HK's Cantonese is not the standard of Yue Chinese. The standard is in Guangzhou (and around, like Foshan). Second, there are many many dialects of Cantonese, and you could say that every village has its own variation. Even places like Panyu or Dongguan have their own dialect, and they are not so easy to understand. Tones are different, some vowels ...


1

It is different from place to place, and there is no standard. Normally, it won't appear in official announcements, laws, scientific publications, etc. But it is widely used in daily life. For native Chinese, when we move from one place to another, even if it is nearer, we still need time to get use to it, at the same time when we get use to the local ...



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