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9

Linguists divide pre-modern Chinese broadly into two periods: Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. I wanted to preface my answer by noting that Bernhard Karlgren used the term "Ancient Chinese" to refer specifically to Middle Chinese, and it appears that your questions seem to be referring to Middle Chinese as well, though I will be making a note about Old ...


8

The shapes of Isogloss maps are generally identical to those of dialect maps. So I think this could give you some clues. Below is a sample for isogloss maps(from http://www.yupoo.com/photos/9919/7485900/) More of them: Suggestion: For more information about isogloss maps, visit http://image.baidu.com/ and type in "同言线". Further reading: ...


5

I've made a chart here for my own understanding of Standard Mandarin Chinese phonology a while ago: a ai au an aŋ e ə əi əu ən əŋ i ia iai iau ian iaŋ ie iə iəu iən iəŋ io iu iuan iuə iun iuəŋ aɻ o u ua ...


5

Biang is an interesting character, being absent in many dictionaries, and having an unverified origin. I don't think it being uncommon is reason enough to consider its pronunciation to be non-standard, however. There are quite a few characters that have very uncommon pronunciations, so much so that for the rare ones, most native speakers would also find ...


4

It's quite clear that there is no difference between "Ẓ" and "ẓ" in the 1987 成都话方言词典 as you have shown. If you look at page 26 of the dictionary, you can see everything that starts with "ẓ" in the particular Chengdu Pinyin system that they have, listed from ẓán to ẓùn. Really then, this is a typographical question. Looking at the page, you see that there's ...


4

As an addendum, two brief comments regarding how tones are reflected in the languages that borrowed a lot of vocabulary from Chinese: According to the Wikipedia page on ‘Sino-Xenic pronunciations’, “[m]ost Middle Chinese tones were preserved in the tones of Middle Korean, but these have since been lost in all but a few dialects.” The source cited seems ...


2

The simple answer is yes, it is a phonologically possible syllable in Mandarin Chinese. Remember for every Chinese syllable, there is a initial + final + tone , in this case, b is the initial, iang is the final, and the tone is 2, So the three factors complete its qualification as a Mandarin Chinese syllable.


2

You can try 乡音苑(phonemica), it has dialects map in both English and Chinese, maybe you can find isogloss maps.


2

Generaly yes. But I want to mention that the Mandarin was also a dialect. So I'm not agree that the dialects are variations of Mandarin, I think that they are pararrel. Most dialects are more ancient and closer to the ancient Chinese than the Mandarin.


2

Is there a difference between "Ẓ" and "ẓ"? After a thorough review of several texts and online sources I cannot find any evidence of a significant difference in the usage between the uppercase and the lowercase Z with a diacritic dot below the letter. I think the context is pertinent in discovering the intent of the usage (Can you share the textual ...


2

Wikipedia is your friend: Tones See also: Four tones The Qieyun classified characters in four parts according to their tone: even tone (píngshēng 平聲), rising tone (shǎngshēng 上聲), departing tone (qùshēng 去聲), and entering tone (rùshēng 入聲). The "entering tone", also known as a "checked tone", actually refers to syllables characterized by a final stop ...


1

On a similar note, I have never heard a Chinese person spelling an English word to another Chinese person, but when trying to indicate an English letter, for instance an underground exit, they will often say: A, B, C 的 B 吗?


1

Most Chinese characters have been around a lot longer than modern Mandarin, so their phonetic parts often reflect much older pronunciations to the extent that these hints are actually not quite as reliable in modern Mandarin. Take, for instance, 工, pronounced gōng in Mandarin; it is used as a phonetic in the characters 江、紅、項, but they are now pronounced ...


1

To answer your question: Yes, the phonetic part is valid in all the dialects since the dialects are just the variation of Mandarin Chinese, in which ancient Chinese people drew upon or gave ideographic meaning to various objects and concepts in the environment. So in other words, Chinese dialects are "parallel" in a way.


1

In China, there isn't an custom of spelling potentially ambiguous letters. But spell them correctly is a "Rigid Demand". The intelligent Chinese invent many method of dealing with it. Repeat Repeat is the most common way to tell confusion. In many occasion, one spell, the other retell and he tell again to check it. Use common word In my experience, letter ...



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