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12

The standard Chinese dictionary (《现代汉语词典》) lists xuè (fourth, not third, tone) as the official pronunciation and xiě as a colloquial variant. As such, in most compounds and technical terms, xuè is preferred. The pronunciation xiě is acceptable when you just want to say "blood" in casual speech. There are several exceptions: the two modifiers 血糊糊 (xiěhūhū, ...


12

I suggest you pronounce it like the "r" sound in "brrrrrrrr I'm cold" or "grrrrrrrr I'm angry". So for Japan you could do it like "rrrrrrr ben". Don't roll this "r" sound. This will get you about 80% accuracy. To get the rest you need to make the same voiced palato-alveolar sibilant, then you will be there. Just want to add the palato-alveolar sibilant ...


12

Pinyin, like other written systems, is an arbitrary system, and the corresponding sounds were expressly decided. It seems it was based on preexisting systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, and the diacritic markings from Zhuyin (also known as Bopomofo). But the same problem you highlight in your question happens when learning any other ...


11

The correct one should be bu2 zai4 hu. Unless there is an emphasis for "NOT" CARE, a 4th tone bu4 is then used, but I rarely hear that as a native speaker. Let's review the tone change rule for 不, A second tone bu2 is used only when the tone of next character is a 4th tone, i.e. bu2 shi4. A forth tone bu4 is used if the tone of next character is 1st, 2nd ...


11

Dictionaries, in general, will not incorporate tone sandhi rules into their pronunciations (of which Mandarin has quite a few) Wikipedia says the following: Mandarin Chinese Mandarin features several sandhi tone rules. When there are two 3rd tones in a row, the first one becomes 2nd tone, and the second one becomes a half-3rd tone. E.g. 你好 ...


10

In the (very) old days, there was a system called 反切 (in English) where two characters were used, one for initial, one for the rhyme (vowel[s] + final), followed by 切 to indicate it was a phonetic notation. For instance, 東 could be represented as 德紅切. Edit #2 I thought I should insert an example from the canon of Chinese dictionaries, 康熙字典. Here's page 1 ...


9

The same happens with other characters with the same "finals": 就 - Jiù 扭 - Niǔ etc... From this page of Chinesepod.com: Mandarin's iu sound can confuse you because what is written is actually an abbreviated form of "iou," a straightforward combination of the vowel sounds i and ou. Thus the iu syllable sounds similar to the "yo" of the English word ...


9

Actually, such a problem even upsets native speakers, like me. When I was a student, I had to memorize the words for different pronunciatons too. Unfortunately,there are some characters with two different pronunciations when used in colloquial language (白读) and literary language (文读), while different pronunciations basically mean the same. See the article ...


9

I like the pinyinput input method editor. Just type the letters for the syllable followed by a tone number, and it will combine them in the usual way.


9

I have never found a reasoning on how Pinyin was created, but as Alenanno says, there have been predecessors and people working on the Pinyin standard already had some experience with existing systems. Some sounds can probably be mapped to similar IPA notation, while others seem totally off. From my own reasoning I'd say there are at least two arguments ...


8

From Wikipedia, before Hanyu Pinyin was introduced, the PRC Chinese learnt Bopomofo or 注音符號 [Zhùyīn fúhào]. It comprises of 37 characters (注音) and four tone marks (符號). 注音 consists of consonants, rhymes and medial (e.g. ㄅ,ㄆ,ㄇ,ㄈ) 符號 is similar to the four tones in Pinyin except there is no marking for the first tone (ˊ,ˇ,ˋ) An example: 大 (ㄉㄚˋ, dà) where ㄉ ...


8

儿 in this case indicates the application of 儿化 (er2hua4) or 'r-coloring' to the previous syllable. To input 哪儿 using a typical Pinyin IME, you would have to type naer or na'er, because nar would be segmented na r, and the IME would then expect further input for a second Pinyin syllable beginning with r. Outside of keyboard input, however, the correct ...


8

All the consonants in the first group are bilabials (articulated with the two lips). The reason can't be phonemic, since there are no such Pinyin syllables *do, *so, *lo etc. -- as you correctly note Pinyin could be simplified by replacing all -uo syllables with -o. I expect the reason for the spelling is perceptual -- from the perspective of phonetics, ...


8

It seems that Pinyin does this to conform to a former phonetic transcription system 注音符号, which drops u (ㄨ) before o (ㄛ) after b p m f. 注音符号 was originally designed to reflect some old (perhaps not even real) phonetic rules and symbols like uo (ㄨㄛ) uan (ㄨㄢ) were used. However, in most Chinese dialects there's no contrast between rounded and unrounded vowels ...


7

You can find the explanation in page for Pinyin on wikipedia: Note on y and w y and w are equivalent to the semivowel medials i, u, and ü (see below). They are spelled differently when there is no initial consonant in order to mark a new syllable: fanguan is fan-guan, while fangwan is fang-wan (and equivalent to fang-uan). With this convention, an ...


6

The OP is asking how to type characters, using a pinyin IME, when those characters have a ü in their pinyin spelling. For example, how do you type 绿=lü? This is different than asking how to actually type the letter ü. The answer is to type a v. To follow the example, change to the pinyin IME, type lv and select 绿.


6

I wrote the PinyinTones IME a couple of years ago to do exactly what the OP was asking about: http://pinyintones.codeplex.com/ PinyinTones a Windows IME that outputs Pinyin with tone marks, rather than Chinese characters. Type 1, 2, 3, or 4 after each syllable to add a tone mark -- just as people have been entering Pinyin since the days of ASCII ...


6

Chinese was once monosyllabic, where one character represented one word. But back then, thousands of years ago, pronunciation for characters was also much more distinct, and still is in certain topolects (like Cantonese). Modern Mandarin, on the other hand, compensates for lack of precision in pronunciation by being polysyllabic, where mosts words are ...


5

In IPA transcriptions of Chinese, ying is usually written as: [iŋ]. This is exactly like yin, except with an "ng" sound. However, as you noticed, some people pronounce it a little differently. This paper (page 9) transcribes the alternate pronunciation as [iɘŋ]. Wouldn't really call it an "o" sound, but the vowel is different than that of the yin.


5

Pinyin was designed primarily as a writing system for Chinese speakers to use, and to help children who speak other dialects to learn Mandarin. As such, making it easy for foreigners was not a particular priority. In any case, different languages use the Roman letters differently, so what would be obvious choice? For example, in different languages J can ...


5

The pronunciations of finals do not change when used after different finals, with perhaps only one exception: 'i'. It has three variations: 'zi ci si', 'zhi chi shi ri', and all others. NOTE: Not many Chinese know the differences, but you can compare: English pinyin Lee li she shi (the two consonants are also different) see si The three ...


5

In standard Mandarin, the pinyin h is pronounced as [x] in IPA, like ch in Scottish English loch -- yes, you're right that there's a tiny g, because [x] is a velar consonant. However, in south China, many simply say [h], although some natural assimilation may happen. For instance, for those speakers, pinyin ha is [ha] while pinyin he becomes [xɤ] (if you get ...


5

I think it is a terrible mistake that the website has made, because there is no occasion when qu is pronounced tsʰu in Mandarin. Since you can actually tell the difference between u and ü, things should be easier for you now. You can just memorise that after (pinyin) j, q, x, y, ü is always written as u, and if you see u after j, q, x, y, it's always ...


5

It's Mandarin transliteration by Portuguese Jesuit Fr. Inácio da Costa (17th century). Partial text: “大学之道,在明明德,在亲民,在止于至善” Ta hio chi dao, cai min min te, cai cin min, cai chi yu chi xen


4

I think one of the reasons is the loss of tone and/or stress in the syllable. But see this table, "Chinese (Mandarin)/Pronunciation of Finals", it provides a good summary of the changes.


4

Personally I think the IPA given in the Wikipedia page for Pinyin is organized well and the symbols don't change like other pages I've seen, i.e. the browser changes to other symbols ruining the IPA scheme. Like it has been said, the IPA transcription might change in some words endings when you transcribe real speech, so you must be aware of that and know ...


4

Here is a list for all the pinyin and there correspondence IPA: http://ling.cass.cn/yuyin/english/sampac/sampac.htm You'll need a special font to show the IPA on the page correctly, which is downloadable from the page. This page is in the web site of the Institute of Linguistics, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. NOTE: same letter in different ...


4

I agree with fefe and I would like to show my experience on how to read these acronyms. A native Chinese speaker will read it as he reads these letters in English, however, There is no standard way to pronunce these acronyms. Different people would read them differently, as every one has his own preference (also effected by his dialects,I believe) to read ...


4

I don't believe there is a standard for it. But from news and gameshows it is quite common to pronounce the first few letters of the alphabet (ABCD..) in first tone as part of a Chinese sentence. For other letters like HXZ that do not go well in first tone, the fourth tone is used. Like I said I don't believe this to be a standard, but a result of people ...


4

In short: the standard pronunciation is the English pronunciation. There's no Chinese standard way to pronounce English letter (how they are pronounced when they are used as pinyin should not be counted here, I think). Tone does not exist for English letters, as they are English, not Chinese. English intonation should take effect(in English, when 'DVD' is ...



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