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6

How was it pronounced in older times (i.e. Middle Chinese)? I haven't found a record of 瞓 in classical Chinese, but since 瞓 and 训 are both read as fan in Cantonese, I'll take 训 instead. It is read qhuns in reconstructed Old Chinese that is before the 1st century B.C. In Middle Chinese it is pronounced as hyonh. How did the pronunciations ...


4

Old Pekin dialect (>50 years ago) pronounce it as lin(4th tone) and that might be influencing some other dialects. I am not sure about the situation in TW, but mandarin standard is lun(4th tone) except for 论语, habitually lun (2nd tone).


4

It's the 4th in 一概而论, both regions: Check. e.g.: Mainland: 在线新华字典 Taiwan: 教育部重编国语字典 (Both URLs point to the '一概而论' entry) 论 does have a 2nd tone reading, but 论语 seems to be the only where it is used.


3

I believe that 𦨻 is a mistake in transcription for 觥 (gong1) because they could look very similar in cursive script. 觥 means drinking vessel and 觥船 means a big drinking vessel, see, e.g., http://www.zdic.net/c/5/f0/248556.htm .


2

As Wang Dingwei notes in his answer, 瞓 is a phono-semantic character that uses 訓 (also pronounced fan3 in Cantonese) as the phonetic component to represent the word fan3 in its meaning of "sleep". However, 瞓 is a character that was invented in recent times. The phonetic 訓 was chosen because it happens to have the same pronunciation in modern Cantonese, but ...


1

论 ,there are two tones. second tone and fourth. Mostly,论 is fourth tone.It is a verb. e.g. 一概而论、讨论 Only in the situation of 论语 ,论 is the second tone. 论语 is an old book writtern by Confucius‘s students,recording what Confucius said!



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