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15

Voicing and Aspiration Stop consonants can fall into the following categories (roughly): Voiced stops: Vocal chords start vibrating before stop is released. E.g., English "b" as in "bat" (/bæt/ in IPA), French "b" as in "bon" = /bɔ̃/. Unvoiced unaspirated stops: Vocal chords start vibrating almost exactly when stop is released. E.g., Chinese "b" as in ...


11

一 in 一线 has two kinds of tones, and two corresponding meanings: yi1 xian4 (1st tone), means front line / 1st line, such as 一线城市 (first-tier city), 亲临一线, 一线队. yi2 xian4 (2nd tone), means a gleam of / a ray of, such as 一线光明, 一线生机. Basically, before the word with 4th tone, 一 should be pronounced as the 2nd tone (“一”的音变), such as 一样, 一辈子. But if it is used ...


9

There have been conflicting claims on whether the second tone and the "raised third tone" are distinct, but according to Jerry Norman's 1988 book, Chinese, "Perceptual tests done by Dreher and Lee (1966) and Wang and Li (1967) established that native speakers are unable to make a consistent distinction between second tones and raised third tones" (147). So ...


7

一 is First tone here, meaning first class, the best. Other examples: 一等奖, first prize; 第一, first.


7

In most Cantonese speakers I know, 廿 is still a colloquial item of vocabulary, replaced with 二十 in usual formal writing; but 廿 remains a very common alternative, for counting as well as enumerating. According to CantoDict, the pronunciation "a" is the most common. This is verified in my experience; the variant with "e" I've not heard this before myself, but ...


6

As a Mandarin native speaker I pronounce 道 exactly same as 到,稻。 I pronounce the initial d exactly same as in dog or dad. I also pronounce t exactly in the same way for stop. The native English pronunciation of dog and stop might be different, but to my ESL ears, they are exactly same. Added: Here is a video teaching Pinyin Mandarin Chinese Pinyin ...


6

If it's on a downbeat, accented note, then definitely "di". If it's short and unaccented, then it really does not matter. It's probably why you could not tell when you heard it. If you are singing, sing "di" to play safe.


5

Use 破折号(dash), for example: 我们在天安门前深情的呼唤:周——总——理——


5

The one I see most often is the use of "~": "啊~~~"


4

Mandarin 你会说汉语吗? (Ni3 hui4 shuo1 han4 yu3 ma5) Or polite form: 您会说汉语吗?(Nin2 hui4 shuo1 han4 yu3 ma5) Of course, you can say 中文 (zhong1 wen2) instead of 汉语. That is not the big question here, but rather that you have to include 会, which underlines that you ask if the person you are speaking to, can speak Chinese or not. Only asking 你说汉语吗? is not ...


4

Standard Cantonese's 陽平 tone is definitely pronounced with a falling contour (21). Modern Cantonese Phonology by Robert S. Bauer, p. 144 appears to acknowledge, but did not find, a low-level contour for this tone though: For the Mid-Low Falling tone both Yuan (1983:181) and Zhan (1985:168) also recognized a variant low level contour of ˩11 in addition to ...


4

An excellent resource for answering questions like this is 漢字古今音資料庫 at http://xiaoxue.iis.sinica.edu.tw/ccr/. Unfortunately it doesn't have Song or Yuan reconstructions, but it does list the 攝, which is a Song era classification. 祯 was in 梗攝, and 蒸 was in 曾攝 so they shouldn't have been complete homonyms. The difference, however, was probably in the vowel, ...


4

There are official lists for this. See the following pages in the Chinese Wikipedia: 普通话异读词审音表 for mainland China 國語一字多音審訂表 for the ROC (Taiwan) Neither of the lists is complete; they are basically there to provide standard answers to test students on correct pronunciation. How many characters have variant readings is actually quite hard to answer; one ...


4

There is data on this matter. http://www.zainea.com/f0_m%26f.pdf present data showing that English speakers who study Mandarin typically use more tonal range in Mandarin than in English but substantially less than native Mandarin speakers do. Hardly surprising. And it is known that musical training helps. ...


4

The traditional character for 儿 is 兒. They are pronounced the same [ér].


3

1235/3000 or 41%, by using grep '[.].[.*' on Wenlin's frequency list. 1 的 [de] (grammatical particle) [dì] 目的 mùdì goal [dí] 的确 [dī] cab 3 是 [shì] to be [tí] 4 不 [bù] not [bú] [fǒu] [fōu] [fū] 5 了 [le] (particle) [liǎo] 了解 comprehend [liào] (=瞭) [liāo] [liáo] 9 有 [yǒu] have; there is; 没有 haven't; 有的 some [yòu] (=又) [wěi] 10 中 ...


3

Originally, you had two separate characters (zdic links): 粘 = zhan1 = (v.) to stick 黏 = nian2 = (adj.) sticky The usage distinction still remains, but it is now acceptable to use 粘 for either word. Unihan lists the characters as semantic variants.


3

If you'd ever seen Mathews' Chinese-English dictionary (rev. American ed. Harvard UP, 1957 and a million pirate editions), this would ring a bell. "Chiai" goes back to the OLD National Pronunciation system of 1920 and can also be found in a system used by the missionaries of the China Inland Mission, of whom R. H. Mathews was one. The revision of Mathews ...


3

@DrunkenMaster's comment is right you will meet many accents of Mandarin. But there is a literally official standard of pronunciation in the PRC, tested by the 普通话水平测试. Set levels of performance are required for school teachers, local tv announcers, national tv announcers and so on. This is probably the most widely understood single accent -- even if no one ...


3

Interesting, I saw reasons for several pronunciations. (Sorry for leaving some 文言(ancient Chinese)because I don't know how to properly translate from ancient Chinese to English) The origin of this word:《史记·卫将军骠骑列传》: 冠军霍去病既侯三岁,元狩二年春,以冠军霍去病为骠骑将军,将万骑出陇西,有功。 【集解】徐广曰:“骠,一作‘剽’” :骠 can be also written as '剽' piāo 【正义】《说文》云:“骠(biāo),黄马鬣白色,一曰白髦尾” 骠 is ...


3

This is a bit off topic from the category of Chinese, but most languages that have never been written before (i.e. they were spoken languages with no writing systems) do not choose the IPA or even the most common writing system used in their area (often seen as the alphabet/language of the colonizer, which may be the sentiment reflected in China on a ...


3

Their pronunciations (both Cantonese and Madarin) can be found on Wikipedia: 廿 niàn 卅 sà 卌 xì These three words can be found in poems, but are rarely used in mandar today, usually we use "二十/三十/四十" to represent twenty/thirty/forty. To be specific: 廿 is wildly used in some dialects (as far as I know in Zhejiang Province): we use "廿二" for 22. 卅: is used ...


2

Woo6-yi5 户珥 From this pdf pg. 14 户珥 is pronounced Woo6-yi5 (Jyutping should be something like: Wu6-ji5).


2

From a native Chinese perspective: 粘(zhan) = 粘 (nian1) = to glue, to stick = verb. 粘(nian2) = 黏 (nian2) = sticky = adj. Although 黏 is more used in written, while 粘(nian2) is more oral.


2

I was taught at class, that zhan is the reading when 粘 is used as a verb, 'to stick, to glue'; the more common reading nian covers almost all the other cases, when its used as an adjective, 'sticky'. But I think this is not entirely correct. Here's a long list with compound words. In most cases the reading is nian, in some cases zhan. Try to see if you can ...


2

一线城市 is the first tone Rule number 1: If "一" is for "order", then it is the first tone. However, 一线天, is the second tone. Rule number 2: If "一" is for "quantity", then it is the second tone. Again, in oral Chinese, sometimes rules above are not always right, e.g. 一辈子, usually ppl use second tone for that, because that can give this word a special ...


2

I don't agree wpt's answer. I'm a native speaker and most of people won't pronounce nèiyǒng unless you speak very very very fast(this phenomenon will happen on many many Chinese words). And for mandarin, it is considered as non-standard pronunciation, you should avoid such pronunciation in formal condition. And in my hometown and many other places, ...


2

Traditional Chinese poems involve some complicated concepts, which can be written for a big book. In general, both sound of syllables and tones concern. But it could be very different from modern Mandarin, depending on the characters. In addition, both sound and tones could be different. Now here's the short (but far away from complete) story: ...


2

Have you had problems noticing the difference between "sheer" and "cheer", or "jeep" and "cheap"? If not, then your problem is solved. For European people, it is strongly recommended that they read articles with Pinyin (literally "Spelled Pronunciation"). Why characters are not relevant to their pronunciations? Chinese has so LONG a history that ...


2

说着 could be either a verb (said) or an adverb (while saying). But as I understand it these are pronounced differently. In most cases 说着 reads 'zhe' and means while saying. 说着(zhao2) is a rare usage only in colloquial language in the Northern dialects, where 着 means hit the target, e.g. '被你说着了' means 'spot on'. The non-dialectal version is '被你说中了'. ...



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