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6

Here is a nice short overview on Mandarin tone sandhis: http://web.mit.edu/jinzhang/www/pinyin/tones/index.html If you want to read into the details I have found the following a very good source (from the father of another romanization): "Yuen Ren Chao: A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1968, ISBN 0-520-00219-9."


6

Complete rule of tones change is not a simple subject which can be understood just b a list. But there is a simple one I think might be suitable for you. http://www.trinity.edu/sfield/chin1501/ToneChange.html Plus, if you are a foreigner who want learn Chinese without academic purpose, I think it's enough since many Chinese cannot use tones change complete ...


5

As a form of Southwestern Mandarin, you can approach the Chongqing dialect with resources designed for Sichuanese in general. The English Wikipedia gives a lot of resources on "Si4cuan1hua4", including a good overview of the phonology, and a introduction to Sichuanese Pinyin. The Chinese Wikipedia gives a little more detail on the Chengdu-Chongqing dialect. ...


5

There is one main difference between children's books and adult foreign textbooks: Adult foreign textbooks are designed to give foreigners the best chance to communicate in simple everyday circumstances. Children's books start with the very basics and require longer to get to the same place, however they provide you a much more solid base and a far wider ...


4

I learned Chinese through children's books as a child. I've suffered from NOT using children's books in other languages. What has happened in those languages is that I've learned a lot of "technical" terms, and can hold my own in "advanced" discussions. Then I trip over some grammar point or some every day phrase that every 10-year old native speaker knows. ...


4

Chih-Hao Tsai's Technology Page is an excellent resource (with the caveat that the corpuses it uses are Taiwanese). On this page you can find frequencies of the most common characters used in surnames and given names. Most common surnames (2012): 陳 林 黃 李 張 王 吳 劉 蔡 楊 許 鄭 謝 郭 洪 邱 曾 賴 廖 徐 周 葉 蘇 莊 呂 It's clear that this is from a Taiwanese source since 陳 is ...


4

I think it is a terrible mistake that the website has made, because there is no occasion when qu is pronounced tsʰu in Mandarin. Since you can actually tell the difference between u and ü, things should be easier for you now. You can just memorise that after (pinyin) j, q, x, y, ü is always written as u, and if you see u after j, q, x, y, it's always ...


3

I suggest you use an online dictionary similar to this site: http://www.mdbg.net/chindict/chindict.php?page=worddict&wdrst=0&wdqb=shishi The linked site above allows you to hear the pronunciation (click on the arrows), however I suggest you copy and paste two characters into Google translate which has the audio and it pronounces it as a set phrase ...


3

The baidu baike (http://baike.baidu.com/) often has the abbreviation listed under the main entry. 中华人民共和国国家发展和改革委员会, for example, has 国家发改委. 中华人民共和国国务院办公厅 lists both 国务院办公厅 and 国办. And yes, 家用电器 points to 家电 as the simpler form, although it is somewhat hidden in the entry.


3

I have read some children's books and found that they can be helpful. However, there is one drawback that I've seen, which doesn't apply to textbooks. Some children's books are designed to help children learn to read. However, the assumption is that the children already know how to speak. Thus, the book helps new readers learn characters but assumes they ...


3

For example, you can go to Forvo.com. (You can find the Chinese section at this address; on the right you see the top users that provided most audios.) It's a huge database of words, characters, expressions in any language provided by users. The good thing is there's a lot of stuff, but the down-side is that although some users provided many audios (so you ...


2

No. Children's books are written -- not surprisingly -- for little native speakers. These are little people who have an astonishingly broad vocabulary at age three. And that vocabulary includes many words that foreign learners of the language never pick up (or need, really.) What kid doesn't know the sounds that every animal makes, or the words for a bunch ...


2

As xiecheng mentioned, tones changes are very complicated, and there is unfortunately little material on subject. Not that you care to this extent, but one can actually "map" tones using audacity (http://audacity.sourceforge.net). If you do that, you'll see that tones change a lot when they are in sentences and that how and the extent to which a tone can ...


2

This is a pretty good website: http://lost-theory.org/chinese/phonetics/ It contains the pronunciation of all initial and final combinations and all tones for each of them. You first have to click on one the pinyin in the table and afterwards choose the correct tone on the top right.


2

I recommend this《小學生的國語辭典》approved by the Taiwanese Ministry of Education for their primary school students. It contains the following features: 语文帮手 (or language assistant) to highlight certain words that require particular attention. For example: 「人才」有才能和德性的人。例: ... 請注意:指才能和知質義時「人才」也可以寫成「人材」:但是有木料或原料的意思時「木材」和「藥材」不可以寫作「木才」、「藥才」。 小提醒 (or small ...


2

You see, I want to hear actual Chinese spoken at normal speed for the length of a movie or tv show. So 学说中国话 is run to hear but not really what I want. Oh, it seems that you can find more and more Chinese news played in CCTV4 (Chinese International Channel), this is now standard Chinese news for you to listen to: http://cctv4asia.cntv.cn/ And what's ...


2

I'm a Chinese high school student, I knew someone who has a 垚 in her name. 垚 is often used in the belief that if someone is lack of "earth" in the "five elements" (metal金, wood木, water水, fire火 and earth土), it is good to add more 土 to his/her name. 淼,炎,森,鑫 are often used for the same reason.


2

Here are some exmaples: shi jian 尸检 shi1 jian3 时间 shi2 jian1 实践 shi2 jian4 使剑 shi3 jian4 世间 shi4 jian1 事件 shi4 jian4 试建 shi4 jian4 shi shi 失实 shi1 shi2 失事 shi1 shi4 实施 shi2 shi1 时时 shi2 shi2 时事 shi2 shi4 实事 shi2 shi4 十世 shi2 shi4 史实 shi3 shi2 史事 shi3 shi4 誓师 shi4 shi1 事实 shi4 shi2 事事 shi4 shi4 逝世 shi4 shi4 yi yi 一亿 yi2 yi4 疑义 yi2 yi4 意义 yi4 hi4 异议 ...


2

The most used ones are 钱、文、贯、吊、千 and 万。They are not names for money, they are quantitive nouns. Read more: http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%B0%BA%E8%B4%AF%E6%B3%95 Originally, 钱 is a very small mass amount. However, as time went by, it became the name for money. There are other nominative words to refer to currency itself: 贝(shell)、币(刀币as referring to ...


1

Here's the ultimate one for you. 92-character poem by Zhao Yuanren (赵元任) 《施氏食狮史》 石室诗士施氏,嗜狮,誓食十狮。 氏时时适市视狮。 十时,适十狮适市。 是时,适施氏适市。 氏视是十狮,恃矢势,使是十狮逝世。 氏拾是十狮尸,适石室。 石室湿,氏使侍拭石室。 石室拭,氏始试食是十狮。 食时,始识是十狮尸,实十石狮尸。 试释是事。 « Shī Shì shí shī shǐ » Shíshì shīshì Shī Shì, shì shī, shì shí shí shī. Shì shíshí shì shì shì shī. Shí shí, shì shí shī shì shì. Shì shí, shì Shī Shì ...


1

As what you said, Television also helps you that have all been in your seen post: CCTV 4 (mms://8.3.230.132/cctv-4/cctvNews01.wmv) NJTV 1 - Nanjing TV (mms://218.94.122.203/njtvxw) XZTV1* (mms://218.3.205.21/xwzhpd) XZTV2* (mms://218.3.205.21/jjshpd) XZTV3* (mms://218.3.205.21/shzfpd) NYTV - Nanyang TV (mms://61.136.113.41/nytv_1) Besides, you can also see ...


1

I have never looked for this kind of a tool before - good idea! I just ran a search using and came across an online tool that will do what you ask: http://zhongwenzhuanpinyin.51240.com/ If you can read a little bit of Chinese, I would recommend trying this one. It will convert your Chinese characters to pinyin and show tones. I have read on many Chinese ...


1

short answer: 铖 and 曌 the detailed answer: these charactors were created and used for Emperors only. you should 'baidu' for the keywords "只能用在名字中的字" some answer in Chinese: "铖"有只能用于人名的可能。 在明朝的时候,朱元璋规定他的子孙起名时都得按照金木水火土的顺序带偏旁,刚开始倒没什么,但时间一长就出了问题。因为当时起名字的时候也得避讳长辈的名字,这样一来,没过几代,明朝皇室的人就没法起名字了。 ...


1

Look for news articles, especially those from Xinhua, which are considered "official". Typically if an article contains a long-winding name like "人力资源和社会保障部", it is bound to introduce an abbreviation to reduce the verbosity. If you cannot find such articles, which should be unlikely for well-known entities, I suggest that you not abbreviate, especially not ...


1

If you are / were a player of World of Warcraft, you may wanna check a Chinese cartoon name I'm MT 我叫MT. This cartoon series are recorded in Chinese but have English subtitles. As a cartoon, the charters are talking mostly in oral Chinese, without so many attention about grammar, but very closed to real Chinese conversations. The subject of this cartoon is ...


1

You can use some video software or website. Like PPS, PPTV, CNTVBOX, Youku, TuDou, Xunlei Kankan, Xunbo, etc etc, but you won't get English subtitle in most of them, although you can find lots of videos with English voiceover. It maybe troublesome if you want to watch movies since they ban IP address outside China accessing movies, but they don't do this on ...


1

To memorize characters and pronunciation you can use Memrise, which will help you to learn by repeating words you've missed during the previous learning session. However, you won't learn any grammar or usage, just words. So it is not a complete solution, but a good help to expand your vocabulary. It is not as feature complete as Codeacademy but I don't ...


1

mp3.baidu.com is a music downloading site as far as I know... If you are looking for professional Mandarin recording of selective Chinese articles (includes Lu Xun's article sometimes), I would suggest the Yuedu.FM. BTW, VeryCD is no longer a file-sharing site anymore because of copyright issue, and all download links has since been removed. However, the ...


1

AllSet Learning just launched a grammar web site, and the front page has a list of reference books that they used to prepare it. The site itself also looks useful. There's not a lot of detail yet, but they say they will continue working to add more content.


1

Another web site is http://www.iciba.com where you can find not only the pronunciation of Chinese characters and words, but also their meaning in English and Chinese. Update This site has real person readings, but unfortunately the site is totally in Chinese: http://www.caca8.net/zi/py/ — single characters http://www.caca8.net/ci/ — words ...



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