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Just to add to Drunken Master's impressive list, mdbg also has 润肤乳 as body shampoo and 洗发粉 as shampoo powder. I've never seen shampoo powder! Conditioner they have as 'protect hair milk 护发乳‘， among others.
Yes. They are the same. They are both for shampoo. Conditioner is 护发素。 Conditioner is not intended for cleaning hair so it is not related to 洗 or any character with a similar meaning. PS, If you want, you can even create your own word for shampoo as long as it makes some sense. For example, you can say 洁发剂, which you can't find in any formal dictionary. ...
I have some more: 洗发水 洗发剂 洗发液 洗发露 洗发乳 洗头膏 洗发精 洗发液 洗发香波 They all mean shampoo. If there is any difference, that might be frequency or regional preferences. The last one is a loanword (香波)
from my experience as native speaker. I don't know about what 油彩 exactly means. But 油漆 means something you paint on your wall at home or to the outside of the buildings.
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