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I would use 什么, or 什么什么 as the placeholder for the characters I can't read. In your exmaple, I would say: 北京 什么 西 什么, or 北京 什么什么 西 什么什么, or 北京 什么 西 什么什么, or 北京 什么什么 西 什么. 什么 or 什么什么 can substitute any numbers of characters. I am from Northern China, and I am not sure what words people in other regions in China would use for this purpose.
Chinese was once monosyllabic, where one character represented one word. But back then, thousands of years ago, pronunciation for characters was also much more distinct, and still is in certain topolects (like Cantonese). Modern Mandarin, on the other hand, compensates for lack of precision in pronunciation by being polysyllabic, where mosts words are ...
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_exclamative_particles But use of exclamative particles is highly informal, and it is advised that they not be used in formal documents or academic papers, unless it is specifically required to do so (such as the case of narrative telling). Some common examples are shown below. 了 le modal particle intensifying ...
many people read:北京X（音：叉cha）上西XX
This is an incredibly broad question; books can be written on the subject. Because of this and I'm not an expert Chinese language user either, I'll only answer using broad generalisations (and exceptions will apply to everything I write here). The contents These are the words and phrases commonly used during Chinese New Year: General well-wishes: as an ...
If you want to be more Chinese style, say "热烈欢迎代表团莅临指导".
I think it better to use "欢迎您的来访！", it does matter how many people are coming for visit. And can be reused for next time.
In oral Chinese, it is rarely to use only one character/syllable (almost all of the characters are also single-syllable words) to carry a specific meaning as a word. For example, the syllable "jiǎng" will be used with other character like "jiǎng + huà" (講話; speaking) or "dé + jiǎng" (得獎, receiving an award). In addition, not every meanings of a syllable ...
First, for the example you have given, besides 讲、奖 and 蒋 I don't think most people will think of any other characters than these when they hear the word jiǎng spoken by itself. A lot of the other characters you have listed there are either somewhat uncommon or are just a prefix/suffix for other words. It's somewhat like it someone just said the word ...
I know that in Japanese there are also sentence ending particles that are both gender-specific and can change the tone of the expression. So it certainly isn't random, and you need to be careful when you use which so the correct meaning is conveyed. From what I hear and am familiar with (from a Taiwanese perspective): 我们去吃饭吧 - shall we/why don't we go eat ...
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