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12

的 in its function as a particle is attested in the 四大名著 Four Great Classical Novels, which are written in a vernacular Mandarin-type language, dating from the Ming dynasty. The particle use of 的 is also attested from the Yuan dynasty, when it seems it was adopted for the grammatical particle of the emerging new literary language. Its earliest attestation is ...


9

Stepping in for my Chinese to Australian translations: Also a couple of other phrases that are good to keep in your toolkit Thank you 谢谢 Xièxiè Is the most basic and common way of saying thank you Australian Translation: Cheers Thanks 谢谢你 Xièxiè nǐ This is a more sincere or formal way of saying thank you Australian Translation: Thank you Thanks Heaps ...


9

To understand the differences properly, you need to know what is 面 and what is 边. 面 is a face whereas 边 is an edge. An edge is like a line guiding you the direction. A face is what is facing you giving you a sense of position. 前/后面 is used to describe the position of something within your visual range. Whereas, 前/后边 is more appropriately used to describe ...


8

"大衣" usually refers to a specific type of garment, it should be longer and more formal, something you will certainly take off when you stay indoors. No one would call a tracksuit top("运动外套") "大衣", but you can definitely call it "外套" or "外衣". I think a better translation for "大衣" is "overcoat" or "topcoat". "外套" and "外衣" are pretty much the same, if ...


7

马铃薯 (commonly known as 土豆 in Northeastern China) is the general term for potato. (炸/马铃)薯条 is commonly understood as French fries (hot chips). By default, both 炸 and 马铃 are redundant. 土豆条 and 炸土豆条 are the less common terms for French fries. Other related terms: 薯片 - potato chips / potato crisps / packet chips 薯泥 - mashed potato 薯餅 - hash brown 烤马铃薯 - ...


7

I gather that 中文 is maybe more like "written Chinese," and 汉语 is "spoken Chinese." This is correct as you would expect, however there are subtle nuances caused by the different spoken Chinese languages and issues of cultural identity, and that Mandarin is often considered the standard spoken Chinese language. Before I digress here are some examples ...


7

The 坊 in 金马碧鸡坊 refers to 牌坊. There is a 金马牌坊 and a 碧鸡牌坊 as mentioned in the Wikipedia article. In the olden days, an arch known as 牌坊 is used to mark the entrance to a city subdivision. From Wikipedia: The largest division within a city in ancient China was a fang (坊), equivalent to current day precinct. Each fang was enclosed by walls or fences, ...


7

冬季 is more formal than 冬天. When used to refer to the season itself, the former is more commonly found in literature, the latter in vernacular. However, when used to refer to something of that season, i.e. in a noun phrase, the 冬季 form is almost always used. For examples, "winter fashion" is 冬季服装, "Winter Olympics" is 冬季奥运会*. You would never use 冬天 for ...


6

I think these other answers are more harmful than they are helpful and here's why: none of them have addressed how 大概 is applied in the real context of using the language. Anyone can look up a word in the dictionary and copy/paste the results here. OP's question is what does 大概 really mean (aka how is it used) and is there anything else like it? 大概 is ...


5

One of the meanings of 白 is, roughly "in vain": 没有成就的,没有效果的:~忙。~说 I think it's easier to imagine how white/plain become "without effect" than it is to imagine how it became "nonsense". P.S. 白话 means "plain speech" = vernacular, as far as i know.


5

A little digression: adding to the complexity is the phrase “同样” So, I think the first step to distinguishing between 同一 , 同样, and 一样 would be breaking them down into characters. meaning of '样' is “appearance, kind, type, sample”. as user58955 mentioned, things with the same appearance/kind/type/sample do not have to be the identical thing. (However, "同一" ...


5

Generally, 同一 means identical and is usually used on identities. 一样 means equivalent and is usually used on properties or results. Examples: 我们去过同一个商店。We've been to the same store. 这两个商店卖的东西是一样的。These two stores sell the same stuffs. 同一首歌,不同的人唱,感觉是不一样的。The same song doesn't sound the same when it's sung by different singers. Note there ...


4

If you want to say hand soap (not necessarily for sanitation), you can use 洗手液. To specifically ask for hand sanitizer (for disinfection/sterilization), you may want to use 消毒洗手液. Below is an analysis for the options you've listed. 洗手液 xǐshǒu yè (Liquid) hand soap. Here soap is in general sense, could be sanitizer, scented soap, skin smoother, etc. ...


4

各 is more like "each". It is more frequently used when the intention is to describe some sort of individuality of some group. It is more common to see this character in describing the difference in each item in a group. Example: 各种不同的花 (many different kinds of flower) 每 is more like "every". It is used more when the intention is to describe a group's ...


4

It's a PRC vs. Taiwan thing. It's like American English vs. British English. You'll find many words are different in Taiwan.


4

简介 is actually a short form of 简单介绍, a brief introduction, while 介绍 is introduction. In this way they are interchangable just as they are in english 导语 - 'lead', i.e. the few words you will see at the beginning of a novel. 入门 - 'getting started', i.e. Macbook for dummies = Macbook 入门 you get the idea for the rest: 引导/引子 - 'guide' 导论 - a more detailed ...


4

The two are interchangeable in this particular context. The two has different usage in other contexts. E.g.: 讲 can mean to say in 讲话, to explain in 讲解, to bargain in 讲价. 说 can mean to persuade in 劝说, and it can be a noun in 学说(theory). The choice of syllables for your situation I would say is based on statistical usage of each. In certain areas 说 is ...


3

外面( literally out-surface)=外边=out-side Speaking of etymology, 边 is a 1-D concept, while 面 is a 2-D concept. The sides of a rectangle is addressed as 长边(长)、短边(宽), while 面 is its area. Habitually, ~边 is more oral while ~面 is more literal. But as far as I know, people in southern regions do not really distinguish them.


3

Although they may have similar meaning nowadays, I would say they didn't come from the same word. By comparing 篆書(~221 B.C.), they are totally different. And 的 seems to be a pretty new word because I couldn't found it in bone script. Not only the appeal but the meaning is also different. The old 之, graphically means one foot on the ground, and the ...


3

“大概”means “unsure/maybe/perhaps/probably”,不确定。 The same Chinese words can be: 1)或许 2)也许 3)可能


2

They are quite equivalent to each other as Stan suggested in the comment. For most people, 中文 = 汉语. But I want to give you some interesting facts: First of all, there are 56 ethnic groups within the Chinese people and the majority ethnic group is the "汉"(Han). The 中文 literally means the language of Chinese people. The 汉语 literally means the language of ...


2

大衣:coat 外套:jacket 外衣:outfit or more generally the out most cloth you're wearing Consider your situation I recommend you to look for "保暖的大衣" or "保暖的外套". Personally I think “羽绒服"(down wear or down jacket) is a good choice for you. It can be very cold in the north.


2

Usually, people use 炮. According to the dictionary [http://dict.revised.moe.edu.tw/] : 砲 同「炮」。 (砲 is the same with 炮) We can say 砲火連天/炮火連天, 砲響/炮響, 馬後砲/馬後炮, 弩砲/弩炮, 開砲/開炮. Boths are acceptable and interchangeable. 炮's meaning involves fire but 砲's meaning involves stone. The early cannonballs (sling) were made by stone, so people use 砲 to ...


2

“坊” has two meanings: fāng means “lane”. fáng means “workshop” I think that 金马碧鸡坊 is not the name of a square. We have a place called 田子坊, it’s a place that has lots of workshops and lanes, people can buy many handcrafts there. “Square” in Chinese should be 广场, and usually it could be a big place, like Tian’anmen square in Beijing. “Plaza” in Chinese ...


2

It think both means restaurant. Someone use 饭店 to refer hotel, I think that's not precise and is little bit old school. Use 酒店 if you mean hotel.


2

As @LadyP indicates, these two words have totally different meaning when used as adverb. When used as 'every', sometimes, they are interchangable, e.g. (每/各)个学校. But: With some nouns, 每 can used directly without quantifier but 各 can't. E.g.: 每星期 -- good 各星期 -- weird But sometimes it's is reversed. 每单位 -- wrong 各单位 -- good In this case, 每 must be ...


2

In Taiwanese 蚵仔 (ô á), in Taiwan Mandarin 牡蛎 (mǔ lì). There's also 蛤蠣 (há lì) but this means clams.


2

I'm Chinese and basically both are same to me. We don't really differentiate them :). 外面 - normal to say in Mandarin 外边 - normal to say in Cantonese.


2

讲 is formal while 说 is casual in this particular context. Usually you won't hear Northern Chinese say "讲英语" or "讲话" in oral Chinese, however these two expressions are used in TV news. Southern Chinese usually use "讲" orally though.


2

大概 has three basic meanings: 1 general (idea) 2 approximate 3 probably Longmans Dictionary Contains the following comparison/warning about similar Chinese words: 【大抵•大概•大致】 dà dǐ / dà gài / dà zhì 都可作副詞﹐都表示對數量的估計和對情況的推測。區別在:①「大概」只表示約數;「大抵」能表示數量範圍﹐有大都﹑大多的意思;「大致」側重於事情的主要方面的情況。②在表示對情況的估計﹑揣測時﹐「大概」重在猜測;「大抵」偏重於肯定;「大致」偏重於大體上的意思。③「大概」和「大致」在口語﹑書面語中都較常用;「 ...



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