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21

If you compare Chinese with English, you will find a lot differences and similarities. Similarities may help you learn Chinese a little bit easily, while differences are the things you need to keep in mind and to get used to. Here are the ways how English/Chinese sentences are constructed. English: Letters ----------------- Words ---- Sentences Chinese: ...


11

This is a good question. 字了一 should be understood as: (and his) 字 (is) 了一 Thousands years ago, many people in China have a special name besides their first name and last name though nowadays most of Chinese don't have one. And this special name is often described after '字'. For example: 刘备,字玄德. According to some reference in Chinese, 字 sometimes can ...


11

In this situation, I would say "您先请", which works fine. "您先请" means 'after you', which is very polite. If you really want to say 'Please, go in front of me' in Chinese, you could say "请走在我前面吧". However, this sounds a little bit strange. Note that you stand in a queue, you don't go in a queue. So "请站在我前面吧" is better.


9

Both A也好, B也好 and A也罢, B也罢 construction mean "whether A or B". It is usually spoken to show indifference when faced with two options or when the choice really doesn't matter. The explanation from 汉典 says the following: A也好, B也好 表示不论这样还是那样都不是条件 Example: 插秧也好,收割也好,都不要误了农时。 A也罢, B也罢 表示不以所列举的情况为条件 Example: 运砖也罢,整地也罢,保证超额完成任务。 When used together, ...


8

字了一 means 表字:了一。 表字: Chinese style name; courtesy name (a name traditionally given to Chinese males at the age of 20 (also called 字)) check http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E8%A1%A8%E5%AD%97 http://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-mo/%E8%A1%A8%E5%AD%97


6

My go-to is usually 百度 Bai Du: It means: but (not);yet (not);and;as well as; Out of all of the examples there, I only found a couple where it precedes the verb: 我愿意为什么**而** [VERB: 牺牲] 呢? What am I willing to sacrifice? 你原是为永恒**而** [VERB: 造]。 You were made to last forever. 而 here, as you can see from the translation, can mean "to" as an infinitive ...


6

下来 puts an emphasis on the fact that the action is completed. 雨停下来了。The rain (has) stopped. (It's over, it's not raining anymore). 我们把休假的地方决定下来了。We have decided where to go on holiday. (The decision is completed, it's done/settled) 他慌乱平静下来了。His frenzy calmed DOWN. (May be this is the closest example in English where we use the same directional ...


6

This infix -起-来 is usually considered a variation of the suffix -起来, and analysed as having an inceptive aspect, also called the inchoative aspect. The sense that it produces is "starting to do", "to begin to" etc. 起来 often interacts with 了 to form a particular viewpoint of an "accomplishment" action as having starting in the past, with the focus on the ...


5

Yes, 都 can refer to either subject or objects. When subject is plural, 都 refer to "all" of the subject. For example: 你们都来嘛?Are all of you coming? 同学们都交按时交了作业。 All of the students in the class handed in their homework in time. When subject is single, and object is plural, then 都 refers to "all" of the object. For example: 你把糖果都吃了? Did you ...


5

for meaning change due to 起来 following verb see any dictionary e。g。HSK dictionary (汉语水平考试词典) In cases shown above verb is a 离合词 which just means that 起来 also is separated,but does not seem to change the generally valid effect of adding 起来 following verb。 起来(5)用在动词后面,表示动作完成,并有聚拢,合并在一起的意思 indicate gathering together or closing):国家终于统一~了|他把钱都藏~了 ...


4

I agree with your answer - it makes sense and reads well. I'm a native speaker, btw. Although 张先生是卖书那个人的妹妹的男朋友 works too, I still prefer your order :)


4

The words 'who' in this sentence is called 'relative pronoun', the clause introduced by which is called 'relative clause'. A sentence with more than one relative clause is said to contain 'nested relative clauses'. The nesting structure in your sentence is: The man, who kissed (the woman, who betrayed him with (the man, who loved (the one, whom nobody ...


4

Obviously, this is a tricky one. I know these three phrases have some same words and looks no differences for foreigner, but they are very different! If I give you one example for each phrase, you still will get confused when you meet a different one, so I'm gonna show you how to fishing instead of just give you a fish, in another word, master those three ...


4

A predicate, by definition, is the whole verb phrase following the subject. You are calling verbs predicates which probably is incorrect. Time phrase and place phrase are nothing special, they are just verb modifiers. IMO they don't belong to grammatical analysis.


3

This is more of an aesthetic / rhythmic issue than a grammatical one. Technically you can keep adding 的 to make a chain as long as you like, but it won't be "nice". It's like saying "that" repeatedly in English, e.g. "the man that ate a dog that ate a fly that watched a cat that liked to browse stack exchange." Grammatically valid but not natural. The ...


3

"There aren't people I can talk to" The translation varies, depending on what word is used to translate "talk to". "说话", to get into a conversation 找不到说得上话的人。 "倾诉", to pour out one's feelings 找不到可以倾诉的人/对象。 or simply 找不到倾诉(的)对象。 With "倾诉对象", the sentence is starting to become idiomatic. Other variants are also possible. For example, you ...


3

I do not agree with S.Rhee. It seems like here it is a name of a book or some TOEIC test preparation reference. Thus, the better translation in English would be: Essential for TOEIC


3

写得完: possible to complete writing 写完: complete writing Beginners often learn 能+verb first, but in many cases, verb+得+complement sounds much more natural when they want to express can/be able to + verb. I'm aware of some languages, e.g. Japanese and sometimes English, that don't always strictly distinguish these two kinds of expressions, but ...


3

Short answer: yes. I think we should at least distinguish two types of complements. For the first type, it is very difficult to insert anything else between the complement and the verb. One way to think of them is to view them as the inflection of verbs. ✔说得出话 verb + de + complement + object ✔也说得出话 adverb + verb + de + complement + object ✘说也得出话 verb + ...


3

indicating success, cf。实用现代汉语语法 555页 (下面所有文字都关于"下来") 5。结果意义(denoting result)(三):表示完成一件费时、费力、需要克服一定困难的动作行为 (expressing completion of some time consuming,strenuous activity involving certain difficulties) (1)一天的重体力劳动干下来,身体好像散了一样,一步也不想走了。 (2)三年中文学下来,他的进步是明显的。 因此有某些使用者建议把"把这些书买下来"翻译成"manage to buy these books"。 it seems this meaning may also apply to 2 of ...


3

A rather concise way: "中文不是我母语"


3

Yes, definitely. Disclaimer I am not nearly as proficient in classical Chinese, so my answer is limited to modern Chinese. IMHO, 未 is more commonly seen in formal context and is often used with 曾 or 從, as in 未曾 or 從未. For example, 單純的你,未曾憂鬱過。 You're such a simple person; you've never been depressed. 人生自古以來,從未順利。 Since the ancient times, life ...


3

Can “未” modify descriptive adjectives? I think so. 我把油画平放以防止未干的颜料流动。未干的颜料 not (yet) dry paint 那家公司已被卖掉,具体售价未公开。未公开 not public


2

In addition, some Chinese word which contains 'repeated' characters has related with the single character, but the word has more implicated. The common way of implication is about space or time. Example: 天 means day, 天天 means day after day, so we use it to express 'everyday'. 远 means far, 远远 means faraway


2

有意思的一本书 is rarely used, either in colloquial language or formal speech. However, 很有意思的一本书 is popular, as in "这是很有意思的一本书" (interchangeable with "这是一本很有意思的书" and "这本书很有意思"). The sentence literally means "this is a book that's very interesting". I do not know why adding "很" makes it sound right. The Google results are quite convincing, though: all of them ...


2

All of your examples are correct. In my opinion, "Mom 's white dog 妈妈的白狗" is the most appropriate. Whether the sentence needs to use "色的" depend on the context. For example: "不管白猫黑猫,能抓到老鼠就是好猫" translate to English "Whatever white cat or black cat, it is a good cat only if the cat can catch a mouse." "我刚才在街上看到一个红头发的人" translate to English "I saw a guy ...


2

The omitting of 的 follows a loose rule of minimal reappearance in the context you gave. The first two are the correct expression in Chinese. The latter two, though with correct grammar, would never make to any Chinese conversation, oral or literal. Also, another general rule here is that the closer the relationship, the bigger probability the omitting. Note ...


2

As mentioned previously, 都 simply means 'all', and what it really refers to purely depends on the context. In this example sentence, the singular form of 'you' (你) is used, and 'all of you (singular)' does not make much sense. So it would not be usually understood this way. The interpretation that makes the most sense would be: "Will you go to all?" ...


2

In general, 看来=看起来=it seems. You may replace one by the other in most cases. e.g. 看(起)来是我赢了比赛。 It seems I won the game. 看出来=figure out. e.g. 你怎么看出来谁是罪犯? how did you figure out who is the criminal?


2

Someone may guide you to a comprehensive source, but if you want to do prepositioning or left branching, all you need to care about is to make them appear in a logical sense. This basic sense is the same for most languages. You put time first, then the location A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away.... You put more prominent attributes first ...



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