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11

一 in 一线 has two kinds of tones, and two corresponding meanings: yi1 xian4 (1st tone), means front line / 1st line, such as 一线城市 (first-tier city), 亲临一线, 一线队. yi2 xian4 (2nd tone), means a gleam of / a ray of, such as 一线光明, 一线生机. Basically, before the word with 4th tone, 一 should be pronounced as the 2nd tone (“一”的音变), such as 一样, 一辈子. But if it is used ...


9

There have been conflicting claims on whether the second tone and the "raised third tone" are distinct, but according to Jerry Norman's 1988 book, Chinese, "Perceptual tests done by Dreher and Lee (1966) and Wang and Li (1967) established that native speakers are unable to make a consistent distinction between second tones and raised third tones" (147). So ...


7

I did some searching for tone distribution chinese and found this post ("What is the distribution of tones in Mandarin Chinese?") on Quora. One person who responded took a list of characters and extracted, with some programming, the tone(s) for each character. (Multiple pronunciations are permitted and counted separately.) The result he got was: First ...


7

一 is First tone here, meaning first class, the best. Other examples: 一等奖, first prize; 第一, first.


5

I suggest that you shouldn't do this. Chinese characters cannot be faithfully constructed backwards from a tone+syllable combination -- the mapping only goes one way (and even then, sometimes characters have multiple pronunciations). For example, as you know, 馬 is generally pronounced ma3. However, ma3 could also reference the characters 碼 (number), or 獁 ...


4

There is data on this matter. http://www.zainea.com/f0_m%26f.pdf present data showing that English speakers who study Mandarin typically use more tonal range in Mandarin than in English but substantially less than native Mandarin speakers do. Hardly surprising. And it is known that musical training helps. ...


4

"Neutral" tone is not really a tone, and shouldn't be used for comparison with lexical tones. Jerry Norman (Chinese, p. 148) calls syllables with neutral tone 'weakly stressed syllables' to avoid just this misundertanding: The term 'neutral tone' implies that weakly stressed syllables are a kind of 'fifth tone'. From both a synchronic and a diachronic ...


4

The neutral tone doesn't have a fixed value; it's phonetic realization is largely determined by the preceding tone: Also called fifth tone or zeroth tone (in Chinese 轻声 [輕聲] qīng shēng, literal meaning: "light tone"), neutral tone is sometimes thought of as a lack of tone. It is associated with weak syllables, and thus usually comes at the end of a word ...


4

Standard Cantonese's 陽平 tone is definitely pronounced with a falling contour (21). Modern Cantonese Phonology by Robert S. Bauer, p. 144 appears to acknowledge, but did not find, a low-level contour for this tone though: For the Mid-Low Falling tone both Yuan (1983:181) and Zhan (1985:168) also recognized a variant low level contour of ˩11 in addition to ...


4

Common romanization systems for Cantonese are Jyutping, Cantonese Pinyin, and Yale. In both Jyutping and Cantonese Pinyin, tones are represented with numbers. In Yale, tones are either indicated with tone marks coupled with -h, or with numbers: 1 high-flat 55 sī sīn sīk 1 high-fall. 53 sì sìn 2 mid-rising 35 sí sín 3 mid-flat 33 ...


4

I am not sure, but probably the Shanghai dialect (上海话), which is said to have only two tones or rather pitch accents: low and high.


3

Arguably 东干语 is an example, which has only three tones. The first and the second one in mandarin is merged. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dungan_language


3

When you are talking about 成都话, the first tone (阴平) follows the following rules: 1) The regular case for the first tone is 45. When you are reading a single character, you should use 45. 2) When the character is part of a phrase or a sentence, it may change. Specifically, when a first tone character A is preceded by another first tone character B, A is ...


3

I've been also curious about this and I think this could easily be a research topic. Chinese people often happen to understand me even when my tones are flat, and I highlight that they understand me a lot less when my tones are wrong. Of course this depends a lot on the context, and on the sentence. In a known context and with basic (high frequency) words ...


2

You kind of hit a snag without knowing Chinese characters (hanzi), because there are so many homophones in chinese, especially without tones. In your example of 吗 and 马, they both have different tones which you don't type at all, and actually typing ma for me gives about 15 different characters to choose from. In fact, even words like 终止 and 中止 sound ...


2

It's not standard Jyutping, but CantoDict uses the asterisk to indicate a changed tone. In your example, waa6*2, the standard citation tone for 话 is 6, but when pronounced in the word, 广东话, its tone changes to a rising tone, so it is denoted with a *2. A note at the footer of the definition page indicates this convention: Also, CantoDict uses a unique ...


2

This is an interesting question, and it got me thinking for the last couple of days. Here's my two cents. Rather than try to match your pitches to some model recordings, have you tried matching them to your personal highs and lows when speaking English? Try to notice how high and low you can go in different language contexts. An example that comes to mind ...


2

I think it's true that Chinese speakers use a wider pitch range than English speakers, or at least a wider range than most American English speakers. I blame it on Clint Eastwood. Unfortunately it's pretty hard to change ingrained vocal habits. One way I've found to practice is to imagine some situation where the English intonation comes closer to ...


2

同调 pronounces as: tóng diào, see reference. (1) [same tone]∶音调相同 (2) [person with same common purpose or taste]∶比喻志趣或主张相同的人


2

It is possible to analyse English intonation with Chinese tonal contours, a favourite topic of mine that tends to upset a lot of people who believe their language is not tonal. This remains controversial, but not so much for those working in voice recognition technologies who actually look at the data. In this response I refer to the surface phonetic tone ...


2

Words do not generally have tones. Characters have tones, and they are integral to the character. Memorizing batches of characters with certain tones is like memorizing batches of characters with certain pronunciations, that is, rather pointless. When memorizing a character, you memorize its strokes and components, its pinyin transliterations, its tones ...


2

一线城市 is the first tone Rule number 1: If "一" is for "order", then it is the first tone. However, 一线天, is the second tone. Rule number 2: If "一" is for "quantity", then it is the second tone. Again, in oral Chinese, sometimes rules above are not always right, e.g. 一辈子, usually ppl use second tone for that, because that can give this word a special ...


2

As a native speaker, this is what I do in such a case: If my listener is not Chinese, does not know Chinese, or I am speaking in an event that doesn't require my listener(s) to know Chinese - I pronounce it in whatever tone I feel comfortable. Sometimes I mimic the listeners' pronunciation. (However, if I can guess the tones, I may tend to guess, because ...


2

it's zhōng, according to 國語辭典: http://dict.revised.moe.edu.tw/cgi-bin/cbdic/gsweb.cgi?o=dcbdic&searchid=Z00000120693 in cantonese, it jung1 (sydney lay scheme) http://humanum.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Lexis/lexi-mf/search.php?word=中 sound file: http://humanum.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Lexis/lexi-mf/sound/zung1.Mp3 方者﹒才也﹒始也; roughly "only then" have fun :)


1

Hearing English speaking folks pronounce Beijing as ”Beizhing” makes this an unrealistic ambition (is it really that hard pronouncing jing quite naturally as in jingle bells?). You simply can't expect people to correctly pronounce names or stuff in another language. Certainly, in some European countries, there are ambitions to come as close as possible: ...


1

Even more useful than learning the individual tones is their learning their combinations. One combination many English-speakers seem to have trouble with is 3 + 2, as in Měiguó 'America' hěn máng 'busy, quite busy' xiěwȧn 'to finish writing' liǎnpén 'basin for washing the face' etc. This combination is particularly useful because it helps people grasp ...


1

I will pronounce it as 同tong2 調diao4 代dai4 數shu4.


1

The difference would be the degree of correctness. Certain words must have no citation. Certain words must have. And certain words are in between. If you come to China, you will hear correct version and wrong version as well based on what province, what city you are. The reason is 1/ oral language is free style. 2/ dialect influence. Based on what you ...


1

Yes, they do feel uncomfortable to pronounce, but they are indeed pronounced two 4th tones. Except the 不 case, in which it changes to 2nd + 4th.


1

Yes, 不 is a special case. Other consecutive fourth tone morphemes are all pronounced (事件, 现在, 俱乐部), unless the word formed itself is a special case where the tone of the last morpheme is neutralized (看见, 用处, 味道).



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