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4

It seems they use both. On this site, alternativehealing.com, there is a long list of botanical names, the characters and the pinyin as well. For completeness, I must say that in the Chinese wikipedia for "botanical names", 學名 (植物), it's stated that Latin must be used for classes, see the part titled "學名來源". On the same site, in this page, there is even a ...


3

In your example '由' means 'by'. To give you more examples, 发动机是由蒸汽驱动的。 The engine is driven by steam. 这首歌是由歌手自己创作的。 The song is written by the singer himself. 小区里的足球场是由大家共同维护的。 The soccer field in the neighborhood is maintained by the community.


3

了 and 到/著(着) (zháo) serve different functions in sentences. 了 used after verbs implies a sense of "stopped, finished,completed, or done" on the action. 到 and 著(着) used after verbs indicate the result of the action. 找(不/得)着, 找(不/得)到 够(不/得)着, 够(不/得)到 吃(不/得)着, 吃(不/得)到 I can't really tell the difference between 到 and 著(着), but it seems to me ...


2

Since your difficulty relates more to the differences between 着(zháo) and 到(dào), I will just concentrate on these two in cases where they are used as a complement after a verb to indicate that a goal has been attained or that there is a result. Although both 着 and 到 are used for similar purposes, there are differences, and often, one is preferred over the ...


2

In your example 「运输问题由他们解决」 is similar to 「运输的问题是他们的责任」. They just state the fact. But 「让他们解决运输的问题」 is more like a suggestion or an order. As @NS.X says, in this situation 「由」 means "by". But these two statements 「运输问题由他们解决」 and 「运输问题*是*由他们解决*的*」 have differences in the tense. 「运输问题由他们解决」 means "the transportation is to be done by them", while 「运输问题是由他们解决的」 ...


2

I'm not sure if translation questions should be on-topic or not, but I think a literal "Rocket minesweeper" or "missile minsweeper" would be appropriate. Military vehicles don't usually have elegant names. I found one example of the term "rocket minesweeper" specifically referring to a Chinese military vehicle.


2

all sciences done in chinese speaking country/regions basically all use english when it comes to technical lingoes. For chinese medicine/herb communities, if they are scientific (e.g. research, done university work) it's just english. Those traditional chinese herb community use the traditional names, but they are basically ignorant of modern botanical ...


1

I'm native, but not a botanist. For official binomial names, they are always Latin. We do have Chinese translation for every genus and species (well, at least most of the species), but not used in binomial names. These kind of translation don't use special characters, and usually not translated by sound, but by meaning.



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