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Both 脚趾 and 脚指 mean toe. 趾 means toe and 指 means finger, and historically 脚趾 is the correct term, but because 指 is a homophone and has a very similar meaning, 脚指 is such a common mistake that in modern contexts, it could be considered correct also. Note that this only applies to the 脚趾/脚指 pair; if you only write 指甲, it would mean "fingernail".
Geographically, Chinese people say seven continents, as you listed above, except Oceania(大洋洲), which stands for Australasia and almost all small islands in Pacific ocean.
The difference would be the degree of correctness. Certain words must have no citation. Certain words must have. And certain words are in between. If you come to China, you will hear correct version and wrong version as well based on what province, what city you are. The reason is 1/ oral language is free style. 2/ dialect influence. Based on what you ...
“趾甲” is short for "脚趾甲" which is toenail.
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