Apologies to those who are irritated by resource request questions.

What would you recommend to brush up and expand economics and business related vocabulary? Ideally I am looking for something that covers a few hundred terms in the area of business, economics and related topics. It doesn't need to include pinyin, and a Chinese-German or a Chinese-French list would also fit my needs. The format is irrelevant (pdf, html, txt, etc.)

  • Have you found any updates? I'm also looking for such resources Aug 27, 2015 at 20:18
  • @tofu_bacon Well, I have found an "offline" (=print) dictionary lately, not the newest, but acceptable for building basic vocabulary in this domain. I'll notify you if I come across something useful.
    – imrek
    Aug 27, 2015 at 20:38
  • What's the dictionary called? And thanks, I'll do likewise. Aug 27, 2015 at 20:43
  • Hello, I have found an online file sharing service that has some interesting material for Chinese language learners as well: vdisk.weibo.com/wap Most of the valuable books are pdfs, search for Chinese terms, e.g. 词典, you might find something of your interest, including economics books.
    – imrek
    Mar 15, 2016 at 9:57

2 Answers 2


I think these are the somewhat basic terms and you probably will hear them quite often.

Listed in http://www.hxen.com/word/changyong/2009-01-04/65060.html 经济学词汇



accounting cost :会计成本

accounting profit :会计利润

adverse selection :逆向选择

allocation 配置

allocation of resources :资源配置

allocative efficiency :配置效率

antitrust legislation :反托拉斯法

arc elasticity :弧弹性

Arrow's impossibility theorem :阿罗不可能定理

Assumption :假设

asymetric information :非对称性信息

average :平均

average cost :平均成本

average cost pricing :平均成本定价法

average fixed cost :平均固定成本

average product of capital :资本平均产量

average product of labour :劳动平均产量

average revenue :平均收益

average total cost :平均总成本

average variable cost :平均可变成本


barriers to entry :进入壁垒

base year :基年

bilateral monopoly :双边垄断

benefit :收益

black market :黑市

bliss point :极乐点

boundary point :边界点

break even point :收支相抵点

budget :预算

budget constraint :预算约束

budget line :预算线

budget set 预算集


capital :资本

capital stock :资本存量

capital output ratio :资本产出比率

capitalism :资本主义

cardinal utility theory :基数效用论

cartel :卡特尔

ceteris puribus assumption :“其他条件不变”的假设

ceteris puribus demand curve :其他因素不变的需求曲线

Chamberlin model :张伯伦模型

change in demand :需求变化

change in quantity demanded :需求量变化

change in quantity supplied :供给量变化

change in supply :供给变化

choice :选择

closed set :闭集

Coase theorem :科斯定理

Cobb—Douglas production function :柯布--道格拉斯生产函数

cobweb model :蛛网模型

collective bargaining :集体协议工资

collusion :合谋

command economy :指令经济

commodity :商品

commodity combination :商品组合

commodity market :商品市场

commodity space :商品空间

common property :公用财产

comparative static analysis :比较静态分析

compensated budget line :补偿预算线

compensated demand function :补偿需求函数

compensation principles :补偿原则

compensating variation in income :收入补偿变量

competition :竞争

competitive market :竞争性市场

complement goods :互补品

complete information :完全信息

completeness :完备性

condition for efficiency in exchange :交换的最优条件

condition for efficiency in production :生产的最优条件

concave :凹

concave function :凹函数

concave preference :凹偏好

consistence :一致性

constant cost industry :成本不变产业

constant returns to scale :规模报酬不变

constraints :约束

consumer :消费者

consumer behavior :消费者行为

consumer choice :消费者选择

consumer equilibrium :消费者均衡

consumer optimization :消费者优化

consumer preference :消费者偏好

consumer surplus :消费者剩余

consumer theory :消费者理论

consumption :消费

consumption bundle :消费束

consumption combination :消费组合

consumption possibility curve :消费可能曲线

consumption possibility frontier :消费可能性前沿

consumption set :消费集

consumption space :消费空间

continuity :连续性

continuous function :连续函数

contract curve :契约曲线

convex :凸

convex function :凸函数

convex preference :凸偏好

convex set :凸集

corporatlon :公司

cost :成本

cost benefit analysis :成本收益分

cost function :成本函数

cost minimization :成本极小化

Cournot equilihrium :古诺均衡

Cournot model :古诺模型

Cross—price elasticity :交叉价格弹性


dead—weights loss :重负损失

decreasing cost industry :成本递减产业

decreasing returns to scale :规模报酬递减

deduction :演绎法

demand :需求

demand curve :需求曲线

demand elasticity :需求弹性

demand function :需求函数

demand price :需求价格

demand schedule :需求表

depreciation :折旧

derivative :导数

derive demand :派生需求

difference equation :差分方程

differential equation :微分方程

differentiated good :差异商品

differentiated oligoply :差异寡头

diminishing marginal substitution :边际替代率递减

diminishing marginal return :收益递减

diminishing marginal utility :边际效用递减

direct approach :直接法

direct taxes :直接税

discounting :贴税、折扣

diseconomies of scale :规模不经济

disequilibrium :非均衡

distribution :分配

division of labour :劳动分工

distribution theory of marginal productivity :边际生产率分配论

duoupoly :双头垄断、双寡

duality :对偶

durable goods :耐用品

dynamic analysis :动态分析

dynamic models :动态模型


Economic agents :经济行为者

economic cost :经济成本

economic efficiency :经济效率

economic goods :经济物品

economic man :经济人

economic mode :经济模型

economic profit :经济利润

economic region of production :生产的经济区域

economic regulation :经济调节

economic rent :经济租金

exchange :交换

economics :经济学

exchange efficiency :交换效率

economy :经济

exchange contract curve :交换契约曲线

economy of scale :规模经济

Edgeworth box diagram :埃奇沃思图

exclusion :排斥性、排他性

Edgeworth contract curve :埃奇沃思契约线

Edgeworth model :埃奇沃思模型

efficiency :效率,效益

efficiency parameter :效率参数

elasticity :弹性

elasticity of substitution :替代弹性

endogenous variable :内生变量

endowment :禀赋

endowment of resources :资源禀赋

Engel curve :恩格尔曲线

entrepreneur :企业家

entrepreneurship :企业家才能

entry barriers :进入壁垒

entry/exit decision :进出决策

envolope curve :包络线

equilibrium :均衡

equilibrium condition :均衡条件

equilibrium price :均衡价格

equilibrium quantity :均衡产量

eqity :公平

equivalent variation in income :收入等价变量

excess—capacity theorem :过度生产能力定理

excess supply :过度供给

exchange :交换

exchange contract curve :交换契约曲线

exclusion :排斥性、排他性

exclusion principle :排他性原则

existence :存在性

existence of general equilibrium :总体均衡的存在性

exogenous variables :外生变量

expansion paths :扩展径

expectation :期望

expected utility :期望效用

expected value :期望值

expenditure :支出

explicit cost :显性成本

external benefit :外部收益

external cost :外部成本

external economy :外部经济

external diseconomy :外部不经济

externalities :外部性


Factor :要素

factor demand :要素需求

factor market :要素市场

factors of production :生产要素

factor substitution :要素替代

factor supply :要素供给

fallacy of composition :合成谬误

final goods :最终产品

firm :企业

firms’demand curve for labor :企业劳动需求曲线

firm supply curve :企业供给曲线

first-degree price discrimination :第一级价格歧视

first—order condition :一阶条件

fixed costs :固定成本

fixed input :固定投入

fixed proportions production function :固定比例的生产函数

flow :流量

fluctuation :波动

for whom to produce :为谁生产

free entry :自由进入

free goods :自由品,免费品

free mobility of resources :资源自由流动

free rider :搭便车,免费搭车

function :函数

future value :未来值


game theory :对策论、博弈论

general equilibrium :总体均衡

general goods :一般商品

Giffen goods :吉芬晶 收入补偿需求曲线

Giffen's Paradox :吉芬之谜

Gini coefficient :吉尼系数

goldenrule :黄金规则

goods :货物

government failure :政府失败

government regulation :政府调控

grand utility possibility curve :总效用可能曲线

grand utility possibility frontier :总效用可能前沿


heterogeneous product :异质产品

Hicks—kaldor welfare criterion :希克斯一卡尔多福利标准

homogeneity :齐次性

homogeneous demand function :齐次需求函数

homogeneous product :同质产品

homogeneous production function :齐次生产函数

horizontal summation :水平和

household :家庭

how to produce :如何生产

human capital :人力资本

hypothesis :假说


identity :恒等式

imperfect competion :不完全竞争

implicitcost :隐性成本

income :收入

income compensated demand curve :收入补偿需求曲线

income constraint :收入约束

income consumption curve :收入消费曲线

income distribution :收入分配

income effect :收入效应

income elasticity of demand :需求收入弹性

increasing cost industry :成本递增产业

increasing returns to scale :规模报酬递增

inefficiency :缺乏效率

index number :指数

indifference :无差异

indifference curve :无差异曲线

indifference map :无差异族

indifference relation :无差异关系

indifference set :无差异集

indirect approach :间接法

individual analysis :个量分析

individual demand curve :个人需求曲线

individual demand function :个人需求函数

induced variable :引致变量

induction :归纳法

industry :产业

industry equilibrium :产业均衡

industry supply curve :产业供给曲线

inelastic :缺乏弹性的

inferior goods :劣品

inflection point :拐点

information :信息

information cost :信息成本

initial condition :初始条件

initial endowment :初始禀赋

innovation :创新

input :投入

input—output :投入—产出

institution :制度

institutional economics :制度经济学

insurance :保险

intercept :截距

interest :利息

interest rate :利息率

intermediate goods :中间产品

internatization of externalities :外部性内部化

invention :发明

inverse demand function :逆需求函数

investment :投资

invisible hand :看不见的手

isocost line :等成本线,

isoprofit curve :等利润曲线

isoquant curve :等产量曲线

isoquant map :等产量族


kinded—demand curve :弯折的需求曲线


labour :劳动

labour demand :劳动需求

labour supply :劳动供给

labour theory of value :劳动价值论

labour unions :工会

laissez faire :自由放任

Lagrangian function :拉格朗日函数

Lagrangian multiplier :拉格朗乘数,

land :土地

law :法则

law of demand and supply :供需法

law of diminishing marginal utility :边际效用递减法则

law of diminishing marginal rate of substitution :边际替代率递减法则

law of diminishing marginal rate of technical substitution :边际技术替代率

law of increasing cost :成本递增法则

law of one price :单一价格法则

leader—follower model :领导者--跟随者模型

least—cost combination of inputs :最低成本的投入组合

leisure :闲暇

Leontief production function :列昂节夫生产函数

licenses :许可证

linear demand function :线性需求函数

linear homogeneity :线性齐次性

linear homogeneous production function :线性齐次生产函数

long run :长期

long run average cost :长期平均成本

long run equilibrium :长期均衡

long run industry supply curve :长期产业供给曲线

long run marginal cost :长期边际成本

long run total cost :长期总成本

Lorenz curve :洛伦兹曲线

loss minimization :损失极小化

1ump sum tax :一次性征税

luxury :奢侈品


macroeconomics :宏观经济学

marginal :边际的

marginal benefit :边际收益

marginal cost :边际成本

marginal cost pricing :边际成本定价

marginal cost of factor :边际要素成本

marginal physical productivity :实际实物生产率

marginal product :边际产量

marginal product of capital :资本的边际产量

marginal product of 1abour :劳动的边际产量

marginal productivity :边际生产率

marginal rate of substitution :边替代率

marginal rate of transformation 边际转换率

marginal returns :边际回报

marginal revenue :边际收益

marginal revenue product :边际收益产品

marginal revolution :边际革命

marginal social benefit :社会边际收益

marginal social cost :社会边际成本

marginal utility :边际效用

marginal value products :边际价值产品

market :市场

market clearance :市场结清,市场洗清

market demand :市场需求

market economy :市场经济

market equilibrium :市场均衡

market failure :市场失败

market mechanism :市场机制

market structure :市场结构

market separation :市场分割

market regulation :市场调节

market share :市场份额

markup pricing :加减定价法

Marshallian demand function :马歇尔需求函数

maximization :极大化

microeconomics :微观经济学

minimum wage :最低工资

misallocation of resources :资源误置

mixed economy :混合经济

model :模型

money :货币

monopolistic competition :垄断竞争

monopolistic exploitation :垄断剥削

monopoly :垄断,卖方垄断

monopoly equilibrium :垄断均衡

monopoly pricing :垄断定价

monopoly regulation :垄断调控

monopoly rents :垄断租金

monopsony :买方垄断


Nash equilibrium :纳什均衡

Natural monopoly :自然垄断

Natural resources :自然资源

Necessary condition :必要条件

necessities :必需品

net demand :净需求

nonconvex preference :非凸性偏好

nonconvexity :非凸性

nonexclusion :非排斥性

nonlinear pricing :非线性定价

nonrivalry :非对抗性

nonprice competition :非价格竞争

nonsatiation :非饱和性

non--zero—sum game :非零和对策

normal goods :正常品

normal profit :正常利润

normative economics :规范经济学


objective function :目标函数

oligopoly :寡头垄断

oligopoly market :寡头市场

oligopoly model :寡头模型

opportunity cost :机会成本

optimal choice :最佳选择

optimal consumption bundle :消费束

perfect elasticity :完全有弹性

optimal resource allocation :最佳资源配置

optimal scale :最佳规模

optimal solution :最优解

optimization :优化

ordering of optimization(social) preference :(社会)偏好排序

ordinal utility :序数效用

ordinary goods :一般品

output :产量、产出

output elasticity :产出弹性

output maximization 产出极大化


parameter :参数

Pareto criterion :帕累托标准

Pareto efficiency :帕累托效率

Pareto improvement :帕累托改进

Pareto optimality :帕累托优化

Pareto set :帕累托集

partial derivative :偏导数

partial equilibrium :局部均衡

patent :专利

pay off matrix :收益矩阵、支付矩阵

perceived demand curve :感觉到的需求曲线

perfect competition :完全竞争

perfect complement :完全互补品

perfect monopoly :完全垄断

perfect price discrimination :完全价格歧视

perfect substitution :完全替代品

perfect inelasticity :完全无弹性

perfectly elastic :完全有弹性

perfectly inelastic :完全无弹性

plant size :工厂规模

point elasticity :点弹性

post Hoc Fallacy :后此谬误

prediction :预测

preference :偏好

preference relation :偏好关系

present value :现值

price :价格

price adjustment model :价格调整模型

price ceiling :最高限价

price consumption curve :价格费曲线

price control :价格管制

price difference :价格差别

price discrimination :价格歧视

price elasticity of demand :需求价格弹性

price elasticity of supply :供给价格弹性

price floor :最低限价

price maker :价格制定者

price rigidity :价格刚性

price seeker :价格搜求者

price taker :价格接受者

price tax :从价税

private benefit :私人收益

principal—agent issues :委托--代理问题

private cost :私人成本

private goods :私人用品

private property :私人财产

producer equilibrium :生产者均衡

producer theory :生产者理论

product :产品

product transformation curve :产品转换曲线

product differentiation :产品差异

product group :产品集团

production :生产

production contract curve :生产契约曲线

production efficiency :生产效率

production function :生产函数

production possibility curve :生产可能性曲线

productivity :生产率

productivity of capital :资本生产率

productivity of labor :劳动生产率

profit :利润

profit function :利润函数

profit maximization :利润极大化

property rights :产权

property rights economics :产权经济学

proposition :定理

proportional demand curve :成比例的需求曲线

public benefits :公共收益

public choice :公共选择

public goods :公共商品

pure competition :纯粹竞争

rivalry :对抗性、竞争

pure exchange :纯交换

pure monopoly :纯粹垄断


quantity—adjustment model :数量调整模型

quantity tax :从量税

quasi—rent :准租金


rate of product transformation :产品转换率

rationality :理性

reaction function :反应函数

regulation :调节,调控

relative price 相对价格

rent :租金

rent control :规模报酬

rent seeking :寻租

rent seeking economics :寻租经济学

resource :资源

resource allocation :资源配置

returns :报酬、回报

returns to scale :规模报酬

revealed preference :显示性偏好

revenue :收益

revenue curve :收益曲线

revenue function :收益函数

revenue maximization :收益极大化

ridge line :脊线

risk :风险

satiation :饱和,满足

saving :储蓄

scarcity :稀缺性

law of scarcity :稀缺法则

second—degree price discrimination :二级价格歧视

second derivative :--阶导数

second—order condition :二阶条件

service :劳务

set :集

shadow prices :影子价格

short—run :短期

short—run cost curve :短期成本曲线

short—run equilibrium :短期均衡

short—run supply curve :短期供给曲线

shut down decision :关闭决策

shortage 短缺

shut down point :关闭点

single price monopoly :单一定价垄断

slope :斜率

social benefit :社会收益

social cost :社会成本

social indifference curve :社会无差异曲线

social preference :社会偏好

social security :社会保障

social welfare function :社会福利函数

socialism :社会主义

solution :解

space :空间

stability :稳定性

stable equilibrium :稳定的均衡

Stackelberg model :斯塔克尔贝格模型

static analysis :静态分析

stock :存量

stock market :股票市场

strategy :策略

subsidy :津贴

substitutes :替代品

substitution effect :替代效应

substitution parameter :替代参数

sufficient condition :充分条件

supply :供给

supply curve :供给曲线

supply function :供给函数

supply schedule :供给表

Sweezy model :斯威齐模型

symmetry :对称性

symmetry of information :信息对称


tangency :相切

taste :兴致

technical efficiency :技术效率

technological constraints ;技术约束

technological progress :技术进步

technology :技术

third—degree price discrimination :第三级价格歧视

total cost :总成本

total effect :总效应

total expenditure :总支出

total fixed cost :总固定成本

total product :总产量

total revenue :总收益

total utility :总效用

total variable cost :总可变成本

traditional economy :传统经济

transitivity :传递性

transaction cost :交易费用

uncertainty :不确定性

uniqueness :唯一性

unit elasticity :单位弹性

unstable equilibrium :不稳定均衡

utility :效用

utility function :效用函数

utility index :效用指数

utility maximization :效用极大化

utility possibility curve :效用可能性曲线

utility possibility frontier :效用可能性前沿


value :价值

value judge :价值判断

value of marginal product :边际产量价值

variable cost :可变成本

variable input :可变投入

variables :变量

vector :向量

visible hand :看得见的手

vulgur economics :庸俗经济学


wage :工资

wage rate :工资率

Walras general equilibrium :瓦尔拉斯总体均衡

Walras's law :瓦尔拉斯法则

Wants :需要

Welfare criterion :福利标准

Welfare economics :福利经学

Welfare loss triangle :福利损失三角形

welfare maximization :福利极大化


zero cost :零成本

zero elasticity :零弹性

zero homogeneity :零阶齐次性

zero economic profit :零利润

  • Thank you, that's a very nice list covering many useful words in microeconomics. I will keep looking for other lists to expand this one.
    – imrek
    Nov 20, 2014 at 9:38

I'm in the same situation, and have just come across Brainscape:


They have a really good (at first glance) Chinese business vocab list which is free. It uses flashcards. Very nice interface

Cheers Charlie

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