Traditionally, a person may be addressed by taking account of the person's gender, age relative to the speaker, familial relationship to the speaker, and whether or not the person is on the mother or father's side of the family tree. For example, 外婆 (wài pó) can only refer to the mother's mother, and 外公 (wài gōng) can only refer to the mother's father. In contrast, 奶奶 (nǎi nai) and 爷爷 (yé ye) can only refer to the paternal grandmother and grandfather, respectively. The terms related to the family become complicated when you add all your brothers and sisters, uncles and aunts, and cousins. Of course, shortened forms of address may be used, emphasizing the importance of the relationship/kinship over the individual's personal given name. In addition to that, people unrelated to the family are also addressed according to gender and age. 妹妹 (mèi mei) and 弟弟 (dì di) may be used to address any girl or boy who is younger than you, as well as your own familial brothers and sisters.
Okay. Now, let's say you are acting as interpreter for a Chinese-speaking family or writing a novel about a contemporary Chinese-speaking family. In either case, would these terms be translated literally, or would the given names be used instead to sound more natural in English? Or maybe the pinyin transliteration would be used instead of the actual characters to get a feel of what they said?
Somewhat related: I am aware that some TV portrayals of Jewish families (Arthur TV series) will use the term "Bubba" for a female character, who means and is likely the grandmother of a person. Bubba is presumably the transliteration of the Yiddish term.