I would like to know the following.
I would like to know how to pronounce (and perhaps also spell with Chinese characters) the standalone letters of the English alphabet in Chinese. I am particularly concerned about letters appearing in vitamins. For example, how would I pronounce something like vitamin "B3" (other vitamins take other letters), without recurring to its scientific name, if at all possible?
I tend to see the same characters used for transliterating personal and place names, but there seem to be quite a lot of them and I cannot find a list anywhere. In this case, I would like to know whether there is a list of English/foreign language syllables, and what the mapping for transliterating these into Chinese characters/syllable is, if such a fixed transliteration mapping exist.