What's the difference between: 耳膜 and 鼓膜?
Apparently they both check out to eardrum in English.
汉语大辞典, even, defines 耳膜 as
Can 鼓膜 be used in other places then?
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The dictionary takes extra caution and says it's the membrane in the ear, because 鼓膜 literally means "drum membrane", which might be taken by someone as the membrane on a real drum.
In real usage, however, 鼓膜 is just the eardrum. The membrane on a drum instrument, or the drum head, is called 鼓皮.
耳膜and 鼓膜 refer to same thing. 膜，membrane。耳膜，get its name from the position of it. 鼓膜，get its name from its way of working--like the leather cover of a drum. 《高级汉语词典》：耳膜：鼓膜。 and translation to 耳膜：eardrum； 鼓膜: tympanic membrane.
鼓膜 is a medical terms, translated from Western world. It is seldom said in casual conversation. Say 耳膜 instead.