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I'm trying to understand how a complex 比 structure would be like. Specially when it comes to comparing actions I get quite lost. Could anyone check if I got the patterns right?

A 比 B + adjective

我比你高。
(I am taller than you)

A 比 B + adjective + quantity

我比你高5厘米
(I am 5 centimeters taller than you)

A 比 B + adjective + intensity

我比你高多了 / 我比你高一点儿
(I am a lot taller than you / I am a bit taller than you)

A 比 B V 得 + adjective + intensity

我比你来得早多了
(I come a lot earlier than you)

A 比 B V 得 + adjective + quantity

我比你来得早5分钟
(I come 5 minutes earlier than you)

A (V) O 比 B V 得 + adjective or A (V) O V 得 比 B + adjective

我(学)中文比你学得多 / 我(学)中文学得比你多
(I study Chinese more than you)

A (V) O 比 B V 得 + adjective + intensity or A (V) O V 得 比 B + adjective + intensity

我(学)中文比你学得多多了 / 我学中文比你学得多一点儿 / 我(学)中文学得比你多多了 / 我学中文学得比你多一点儿
(I study Chinese a lot more than you / I study Chinese a bit more than you)

A (V) O 比 B V 得 + adjective + quantity or A (V) O V 得 比 B + adjective + quantity

我(学)中文比你学得多四个小时 / 我(学)中文学得比你多四个小时
(I study Chinese 4 hours more than you)

Thanks a lot!

  • Mostly right except for 1. when comparing actions, the word following 得 is adverb instead of adjective; 2. 我中文比你学得多四个小时 is correct but it is more natural to say 我比你多学了四个小时的中文. – NS.X. Mar 9 '15 at 3:23
  • A 比 B V 得 + adjective + intensity, here should be adverb following 得. – PdotWang Mar 10 '15 at 2:35
  • You both mean "adjective with adverb characteristics", right? @NS.X. I've heard someone using that structure too, but I was a bit confused about it. May I use 多 with any verb to make that structure? 我比你多来了中国一年 (I came to China 1 year more than you) 他比你多买了一个苹果 (He bought 1 apple more than you). Besides, that structure is surely a past event, right? Could I take the 了 off and have 我比你多学四个小时的中文 (I study Chinese 4 more hours than you)? Cheers – Enrico Brasil Mar 10 '15 at 13:07
  • You are asking a detailed question. It is a little bit hard to explain Chinese grammar because some terminologies are not exactly its original meaning as in English. Chinese words, either single character (Zi4) or combined words, are of the same form when used as different function, say adverbs or adjectives. It is its position and relation to others that determines its type or function. This is even difficult for a Chinese language teacher to teach it as the second language. Basically, you are correct as you asked. – PdotWang Mar 10 '15 at 22:54
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我说汉语比你说汉语说得更好

(A V O) 比 (B V O) (V 得 adv intensity)

Complex enough?

  • Thanks for your answer! Yes, 更 and 还 do act as intensity markers (a step above in intensity). In the 得 structure can't I use 多了 and 一点儿? – Enrico Brasil Mar 10 '15 at 13:13
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All sentences are very good.

我比你来得早多了 is good. But it also can be, 我来得比你早多了. It is for adverbs.

But for adjectives, you cannot do that. 我比你高5厘米 (correct), but 我高比你5厘米 (not right). An alternative could be: 我的身高超过你5厘米. Here you do not use 比 explicitly.

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