3

The term 汉奸 probably only works for Han Chinese traitors, but what about other '汉's?

2

Sure, look at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SA9Dr7M2hlc for an example, Mongolian 乌兰托娅 singing about 汉子. While 汉 is the dominant ethnicity, in general it just means man.

3

男子汉 means a manly guy, a strong man, or a courageous fighter.

The grammar doesn't seem natural in Chinese. It actually originated in a foreign language and borrowed to Chinese. Here is some text about its origin:

据考证称呼成年男子为男子汉起源于汉武帝时代,众所周知自汉高祖刘邦白登被围后,西汉政权对北主的匈奴一直采取的和亲战略,因此匈奴人对汉人十分瞧不起,到武帝时期经过前几代皇帝的休养生息,西汉国力强盛,士卒训练有素,在汉武帝的命令下,西汉军队在卫青、霍去病两位将军的带领下,与北方的匈奴展开了激烈的战争,经过数次大战终于打败了强大的匈奴,当时的汉朝军队士兵战斗力强悍,在对战中经常以一敌二或敌三,死战不退,一扫有汉以来匈奴人对汉人的蔑视态度,因此从那时起匈奴人对汉朝士兵的称呼即为“汉儿”、“男儿汉”,此称呼后来传回中原,风靡一时,后来人们逐渐对成年男子即用男子汉称呼。

It can be used for people of any ethnicity in China (not just 汉族,but also 满族、蒙古族, etc). So foreigners can also use the word without any problem.

2

Can you apply 男子汉 and 女汉子 to non-Chinese?

Yes.

Originally the 汉 in those words mean 'man of Han dynasty', however, today that connotation is completely gone. You can apply these words on people with any nationality or ethnicity.

2

汉 has different meanings in these phrases.

In 汉奸,汉 stands for the ethnicity (or probably the nationality), but in 男子汉 and 女汉子,汉 or 汉子 means masculinity. I am not sure of the relation between these two meanings, but they are surely different.

-1

男子汉 means a man whose body or inspire is strong and who has no fear to face the difficulties.But the word"女汉子" means different.First of all, it is a word about the girl,and second, it means the girl acts like a man.

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