Request for (at least) 2 loanwords, transliterated, from separate languages meaning the same thing.
- 埃默拉尔德 - English transliterated loanword for emerald
- 祖母绿 - Arabic transliterated loanword for emerald
What other examples exist?
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I can only think of names, if that's acceptable. Biblical names can have different transliterations/renderings in Chinese, perhaps because Christianity was introduced by different language speakers to China, so there are a few names that have multiple transliterations.
摩西 (Protestant) - 梅瑟 (Catholic) - Moses.
桑拿 - 三温暖 (TW) - Sauna, both are transliterations, but the different origin is probably unlikely.
咖啡 - 咖逼 - coffee (English/French) and (Indonesian) kopi.
UPDATE3: 锡兰 (Ceylon, Tamil) - 斯里兰卡 (Sri Lanka, Sanskrit)
UPDATE4: 珠穆朗玛 (Tibetan) vs. 额菲尔士峰 or 埃佛勒斯峰 (English).
For different translations:
Sacramento: 沙加缅度、三个馒头 :P
From different languages, actually, there are many, if you count Japanese and Cantonese.
Florence: 翡冷翠、佛罗伦萨 (Italian, English)
However, Japanese translations won over most early Chinese translations in these words.
Some right on my mind, I am sure you can find much more down this avenue:
现代 (Japanese word) - 摩登 (English transliteration)
触媒 (Japanese word) - 催化剂 (English paraphrasing)
漫画 (Japanese word) - 卡通 (English transliteration) not exactly the same but very similar
Early 1900 transliterations gradually replaced by Japanese words:
电话 (Japanese word) - 德律风 (English transliteration)
科学 (Japanese word) - 赛因斯 (English transliteration)
民主 (Japanese word) - 德谟克拉西 (English transliteration)
If you consider the common names of organisms you'll get a lot more. If you consider common and scientific names together you'll get even more. E.g.
曼珠沙华 (Common name, Sanskrit transliteration) - 彼岸花 (Nickname, Japanese word) - 红花石蒜 (Scientific name, Latin literalization)