上调 is the most common equivalent. In your description you are using the wrong character (凋, the radical is different).
EDIT: to add credibility to my answer and provide some examples, I have added some use cases.
Some usages in abstracts:
School of Life Sciences, Peking University:
"upregulating some signaling molecules of macrophages" (text at the end of the article)
Chinese Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology:
"Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Upregulates Osterix Expression Through Smad Pathway"
"Prostaglandin E2 Mediates the Upregulation of ERRα Expression with BPH-1 Condition Media in Prostatic Stromal Cells "
(You can find many other use cases in this journal.)
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Medical Science Edition):
"Significance of IL-17 upregulation by IL-21 in patients with Graves disease"
调 is the keyword that denotes regulation, thus:
regulatory mechanism is 调控机制 (see Chinese abstract on the linked page) in this context.
downregulation) denotes the opposite of 上调 (
It also comes as 调节 which is to regulate in a general sense (whether up or down, not specified), used in the context of biochemistry.