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《齐桓公伐楚盟屈完》,出《左传》僖公四年,原文节此:

”昔召康公命我先君太公曰:‘五侯九伯,女实征之,以夹辅周室。’”

这个“实”字当何以训?“实”常见的释义里,大概只有“真正、真确”还强通文意。但看到《康熙字典》里“实”又有“具數”一义:“又具數也。《史記·始皇本紀》使黔首自實田。《註》謂令民自具頃畝實數也。”用来训此“实”,是否得当?有更好的解释吗?

  • 6 resuming pronoun placed between an exposed SUBJ and VB or VB -phrase and referring, often with contrastive sense, to the exposed subj: he, they, this, these; e.g. 此二人者實弒寡君 cǐ èrrén zhě shí shì guǎ jūn, These two people, they were the ones who assassinated our lord; 宋衛實難 sòng wèi shí nàn, Song and Wei, they are the ones making trouble; 人實有國 rén shí yǒu guó, It was others who held control of the state. – user3306356 Jun 27 '15 at 5:43
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    @user3306356 - those examples are much easier to understand in the normal sense of 實 as "的確"/etc. The only other example I can find resembling OP's question is also from 《春秋左傳》·《昭公三十年》:「靈王之喪,我先君簡公在楚,我先大夫印段實往,...」where the reading in the normal sense seems equally shaky. – Master Sparkles Jun 27 '15 at 11:59
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Here's an expansion from 《史記》·《齊太公世家》that clarifies:

「『東至海,西至河,南至穆陵,北至無棣,五侯九伯,實得征之。』齊由此得征伐,為大國。」

In this expansion, 實 means "truly"/"legitimately" (實) authorized to (得) launch expeditions (征) against them (之): launch expeditions against them with actual authority. So "legitimately" might be your best single word for the apparent function of 實 here.

實 as 的確 makes some sense in the expanded version, but still doesn't make sense as 的確 in the abbreviated form you cite in the 春秋左傳; so I would take that 實 as an abbreviated form of 實得, and gloss the original shorter phrase as "legitimately [authorized], go on the expedition" . It would be interesting to interpret 實 as "具備"(權力) but I can't find any clear evidence for that reading.

More examples of the 實得 usage would be useful: I'm having trouble finding other instances of this combination. It's worth noting that the above interpretation works quite well for the only other similar usage of 實 I can find, also from 《春秋左傳》·《昭公三十年》:「靈王之喪,我先君簡公在楚,我先大夫印段實往,...」.

Other Examples

Here are some additional examples of uses we can use to examine the problem. Based on searches from ctext.org.

《覲禮》:

天子設斧依於戶牖之間,左右幾。天子袞冕,負斧依。嗇夫承命,告於天子。天子曰:「非他,伯父實來,予一人嘉之。伯父其入,予一人將受之。」侯氏入門右,坐奠圭,再拜稽首。擯者謁。侯氏坐取圭,升致命。

This seems useful because the gloss as 確實 seems even more strained than the example you have provided. Here it seems to mean "May the Royal Protector [伯父] come here under authorization, so that We may congratulate him..." and then the Royal Protector comes in (I think - not sure what 侯氏 is, maybe one clan/surname/氏 of the 諸侯?).

《周語中》

王召士季,曰:「子弗聞乎,禘郊之事,則有全烝;王公立飫,則有房烝;親戚宴饗,則有肴烝。今女非他也,而叔父使士季實來修舊德,以獎王室。唯是先王之宴禮,欲以貽女。...

I.e., the Royal Uncle [叔父, again, whatever] has dispatched 士季 to come under orders to renew old good will, in order to favor the Royal House.

There are other examples of "實來" in canon where it's not so clear it isn't simply meaning "really came". The advantage to the above selections, particularly the second, is that it's a real stretch to translate it as something like "X dispatched Y to actually visit..." - it just doesn't make very much sense.

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    Do you think this one has a similar use of 实? "及栾弗忌之难,诸大夫害伯宗,将谋而杀之。毕阳实送州犁于荆。"(《国语·晋语》) – Fang Jing Jun 29 '15 at 0:02
  • Yes! Thanks for pointing that out. Let's continue the investigation and see if we can't gather enough examples to form a conclusion :) – Master Sparkles Jun 29 '15 at 0:23
  • I also read in 《宫之奇谏假道》 from 《左传》僖公五年, "‘臣闻之,鬼神非人实亲,惟德是依。’" The translation I'm looking at says 实 is 语助词,无实义。Do you think this should actually be the correct interpretation of 实 in all these cases? – Fang Jing Jul 5 '15 at 9:19
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    lol - I'm assuming that means it has no "actual" meaning and not that "it doesn't mean 实".;) That's an example of an inversion along the same lines of 唯德是依 , and in this kind of construction 是 retains its meaning of 这: 只有行善积德,这样才将是鬼神所依从的. So I'm tempted to translate the previous phrase as: 至于鬼神,实际上它们所亲近的并不是人(而是德行),(因为)只有... – Master Sparkles Jul 5 '15 at 12:15
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没有出处支持,但这里是从「确实,实在」(副词)衍生出「(一定)要」的意思,才好讲通吧。

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