There is an article on 属地原则 at 互动百科. It seems to be some variation of the territoriality principle, but that's public international law, and I've found several places where it's used to talk about regional versus national authority. Hard to say how to translate if Chinese has adapted a word to its own purposes.
(Dang! Second paragraph got chopped off, added below; also a comment on the correct translation given in the comments above)
If you add a 化 -ize, 属地化 would apparently mean something like 'territorialize', definitely no colonial implications though. The 属地化管理 article at 百度 gives a bunch of odd definitions, including the transfer of geological surveys from the State Council to the provincial level, or the transfer of "family management" responsibilities to local authorities for the "mobile population". None of this fits in very well with the examples given, which all involve overseas business. Would "territorially based management" work?
As user3306356 notes above, "localized management" is the correct translation. Quite interesting; "Localized management" on google leads to articles on control of white-tailed deer, sinus and prostate problems, and apparently some kind of server-network controls. "Localization management" is mixed up with these, but that's all about translating stuff for international businesses.
When "localized management" in a business context does turn up, most of the references are to Chinese sources. This looks like a case where Chinese has managed to establish a new usage in English. Can anyone find "localized management" in business that is not from China based sources?