From the economic observer:


As far as I know, 等 means either wait or it is either used to end a list of objects.

This sentence is also quite technical itself, so it's possible that the reason I didn't understand this sentence lies in another word.

  • 5
    It means "... and so on", "etc."
    – Stan
    Commented Jul 26, 2015 at 7:06
  • 3
    "The advantages like the industrial structure optimization are slowly becoming clear." may sound more natural in English. The problem may be, when you use "and so on" to end a list of items, readers will expect there're more than two items (am I right?). For the expression 产业结构优化等优势, 产业结构优化 is actually one example of 优势, so, instead of using "advantages such as X and so on", I think "advantage like X" will work.
    – Stan
    Commented Jul 26, 2015 at 8:08
  • 1
    Interesting example of jargon; 背離 as a count noun, first time I ever saw that. A 5 on my weirdcrapometer.
    – wpt
    Commented Jul 26, 2015 at 13:48
  • 2
    @wpt It is a common financial (esp. stock market) terminology for 'divergence' referring to the one between price and value. E.g. 苹果公司利润上升,股价却下跌,形成了一个背离。
    – NS.X.
    Commented Jul 26, 2015 at 17:44
  • 2
    why do people not "answer" but "comment"?
    – jf328
    Commented Jul 27, 2015 at 10:29

2 Answers 2


This answer belongs to Stan. Since he is not able to post, I'll write it up for him.

In the phrase 产业结构优化等优势, the word 等 indicates that 产业结构优化 is just one of several 优势. The word 等 does not require several items to be listed before you use it; instead, it can illustrate one of a range of possibilities.

Translating this into English, I might try using a 非限定子句 'non-defining relative clause':

"The first two divergences can be interpreted as a gradual manifestation of competitive advantages, such as optimized industry structure."

NS.X explains in the comments above that 背離 is some sort of investment jargon for the word "divergence". Be wary of my translation; I can't understand the technical side of the article at all.

  • for the 背离 part, yes it is translated as divergence, I didn't post the complete article so I guess it lacked context. If you are interested you can read it here: m.eeo.com.cn/2015/0715/277868.shtml
    – Lex
    Commented Jul 27, 2015 at 11:30
  • just to be clear - A、B等C never limits instances of C to just A and B? there are some times when it's not clear that the non-limiting "such as" is necessarily the way to go... Commented Jul 27, 2015 at 20:39
  • I need some examples to really undestand what you have in mind. Maybe I'll check out the chatroom for the next couple of days to see if people want to discuss this.
    – wpt
    Commented Jul 28, 2015 at 0:05
  • I'm thinking of things like "泸市发改〔2014〕556号. 委内各科(室、局、中心):. 王国伟、张万军、王勇等三名同志": does that mean Wang/Zhang/Wang are the three comrades, or are there three other comrades? I think it's the former, in which case it becomes dangerous to assume that 等 is always non-limiting. Commented Aug 1, 2015 at 16:46
  • A good example. If you have time, I suggest raising this as a question, I think this would interest a lot of people.
    – wpt
    Commented Aug 2, 2015 at 0:49

Um... IMO, as a native speaker, I think the closest definition to 等 in the previous sentence in English might be "and so on". It is exactly the second case which you mentioned previously: used to end a list of objects. Although there isn't an explicit list here, this sentence is still correct because it's a common practice in China to use 等 to end up a redundant and unrelated list, even if it cannot be syntactically called a list.

Here is an examples: 我和小明等(人)均年仅18岁。

Hope this help. ;D

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.