This answer belongs to Stan. Since he is not able to post, I'll write it up for him.
In the phrase 产业结构优化等优势, the word 等 indicates that 产业结构优化 is just one of several 优势. The word 等 does not require several items to be listed before you use it; instead, it can illustrate one of a range of possibilities.
Translating this into English, I might try using a 非限定子句 'non-defining relative clause':
"The first two divergences can be interpreted as a gradual manifestation of competitive advantages, such as optimized industry structure."
NS.X explains in the comments above that 背離 is some sort of investment jargon for the word "divergence". Be wary of my translation; I can't understand the technical side of the article at all.