Here I answer my own question, summing up the best answers arrived so far, with a basic collection of classical poets. As asked, the goal is not to provide a complete list, but to supply a starting point for beginners.
骆宾王 (Luò Bīnwáng)
孟浩然 (Meng Haoran)
王之涣 (Wang Zhihuan)
李白 (Lǐ Bái)
杜甫 (Dù Fǔ)
李紳 (Li Shen)
Beyond the question itself, interested people can find some examples below (I decided to report them so that they can be used as hints for researches on the net). In particular, 李白's 静夜思 seems to be one of the most famous, known by all Chinese speakers since childhood and reported very often around the web.
Jìng yè sī
Chuáng qián míng yuè guāng，
Yí shì dì shàng shuāng.
Jŭ tóu wàng míng yuè,
Dī tóu sī gù xiāng.
[quiet] [night] [think]
[bed] [front] [bright] [moon] [light]
[suspect] [is] [ground] [on] [frost]
[raise] [head] [look] [bright] [moon]
[lower] [head] [think of] [old] [home village]