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I have found citations from ancient texts backing both interpretations on the Internet while searching for the correct form of the term:

清·唐甄《潜书·食难》:“吾老矣,岂能复俯首于他人之宇下,察颜观色,以求无拂于人,吾不能也。

However,

《论语·颜渊》:“夫达也者,质直而好义,察言而观色,虑以下人。”

Which of these is/are correct?

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Both are correct. According to http://www.zdic.net,

察言观色

察:详审。观察别人的说话或脸色。多指揣摸别人的心意。

察:详审(scrutinize)。言:言语(speech)。观:看(look)。色:脸上表现的神情(expression on face)。
So it means dive sb.'s thoughts from what he says and the expression on his face.

察颜观色

观察别人的脸色,以揣摩其心意。

Note it's a little different that here's only watching expression on sb.'s face, no listening the speech.

And 漫说“察言观色”与“察颜观色”,

“察颜观色”与“察言观色”各有其特定的语境可用,而且都有较远的语源可查,更有权威工具书为据,现代文学中又有许多经典著作的用例佐证,当让这两个成语‚各司其职‛,为传承汉语精确性服务。

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言 means words, what you say 颜 means face originally, and here it refers to emotional expression on your face

both are reasonable 察言观色 means be aware of what you say, and your emotional expression on your face 察颜观色 means be aware of your emotional expression on your face

颜 and 色 here both means emotional expression on your face. 察颜观色 is a repeating of the same thing, also a Chinese rhetoric of 互文 (describe repeatedly)

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