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四川方言词典 defines 圣谕书 as:

(名)旧时民间流传的劝人行善,宣扬因果报应的故事书,本为*讲圣谕用的底本,所以称~:屋主人时常惯用小竹片撑开眼睑,坐在下面看~。(祖61)

圣谕书 sounds like an interesting version of "Chinese fables".

I'm curious as to what the most well known 圣谕书 is?

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The Sacred Edict 《聖諭》was first published by order of the Kangxi Emperor in 1670 (there were earlier works, but this was the first with this title). It was published in a revised and expanded version in 1724 by the Yongzheng Emperor called 《聖諭廣訓》There is an article on this in the Chinese Wikipedia. There is also an article in the English Wikipedia under Sacred Edict of the Kangxi Emperor.

The Sacred Edict was a 'hortatory' work, meaning it 'urged people to do good' (勸善). There was a whole category of such books called 善書; you can still pick these up at Buddhist or Taoist temples in Taiwan. I wouldn't call these books of fables, though.

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