Here is an example of my problem. I came across final particle 乎 in a classical text by 孟子. I know from a short description in a unreliable resource that it is similar to 呢, 吗 and 吧。

The thing is, I am looking for a more detailed description in a reliable resource that I can put in a list of contents for my university report.

Can any one point me to a reliable place to read about rules of Classical Chinese?


2 Answers 2


The best reference in English is probably Pulleyblank's Outline of Classical Chinese Grammar. I don't think it is available in a digital version though, so you'll have to look up a print version.

  • Thank you very much. There is a online version at ebrary.com. I don't know if it cost money for regular people. Lucky for me university ensures i can borrow a digital version for free from ebrary.com
    – Nulle
    Apr 11, 2016 at 14:13

For a reference in traditional Chinese, you may consider the book "經詞衍釋", ISBN: 7101041639. It explains nearly all particles in literary Chinese.

Or, try the site "Multi-function Chinese Character Database": http://humanum.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Lexis/lexi-mf/


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