How do I ask a question like "is it really so that you're just 18?" or "is it really so that the movie was good?", i.e. a surprised question?
My guess is something along the lines of "这是真的，你只有十八岁呢?", but it sounds weird.
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It sounds weird because there is no formal subject (A.K.A. anticipatory subject) in Chinese.
It is [X] that [Y] should be transformed into
[Y][verb as appropriate][X] during translation。For example:
It is a pleasure to meet you. => Meeting you is a pleasure. => 见到你很高兴。
So for the original sentence,
Is it really so that you're just 18? => Are you really just 18? => 你真的只有18岁？
Generally speaking, "is it really so that…?" should be translate to "...真的...吗？".
The First sentence shuold be "你真的只有18岁吗？";
And the second should be "这部电影真的好看吗？".
sometimes, the same structure does not mean the same way of translate.
for this question, i will translate as follow
is it really so that you're just 18? 你只有18岁？真的假的！
is it really so that the movie was good? 你确定这部电影还行？
The way I've had Chinese people express surprise to me is to use 这么. For example:
I realize that this is different than the sentence structure that you gave (and that NS.X. helped clarify) but I find that in my interactions with Chinese, they're more apt to follow their question of disbelief with an exclamation describing their reaction in order to express their surprise.