I try to translate the sentence "this semester we have studied 10 lessons more than previous one".我们这个学期学过的课比上个学期多十课”？
"我们这学期比上学期多学10课。" may be a better translation.
Keep in mind in Chinese typically a measure word is between number and noun. So "十门课” maybe a better expression even your sentence is understood. In Taiwan people could have said “十科” rather than “十门课”. Also most foreigners tend to speak in very formal words, expressions and grammar when they start to learn Mandarin. If I were in this situation, I would say something like "这学期我比上学期多十门课。”